1976 South Carolina Code of Laws
Unannotated
Updated through the end of the 2000 Session

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Title 36 - Commercial Code

CHAPTER 9.

COMMERCIAL CODE - SECURED TRANSACTIONS; SALES OF ACCOUNTS, CONTRACT RIGHTS AND CHATTEL PAPER

PART 1. SHORT TITLE, APPLICABILITY AND DEFINITIONS

SECTION 36-9-101. Short title.

This chapter is known and may be cited as the Uniform Commercial Code - Secured Transactions.

SECTION 36-9-102. Policy and subject matter of chapter.



(1) Except as otherwise provided in Section 36-9-104 on excluded transactions, this chapter applies:

(a) to any transaction (regardless of its form) which is intended to create a security interest in personal property or fixtures including goods, documents, instruments, general intangibles, chattel paper, or accounts;

(b) to any sale of accounts or chattel paper.

(2) This chapter applies to security interests created by contract including pledge, assignment, chattel mortgage, chattel trust, trust deed, factor's lien, equipment trust, conditional sale, trust receipt, other lien, or title retention contract and lease or consignment intended as security. This chapter does not apply to statutory liens except as provided in Section 36-9-310.

(3) The application of this chapter to a security interest in a secured obligation is not affected by the fact that the obligation is itself secured by a transaction or interest to which this chapter does not apply.

SECTION 36-9-103. Perfection of security interest in multiple-state transactions.



(1) Documents, instruments, and ordinary goods.

(a) This subsection applies to documents and instruments and to goods other than those covered by a certificate of title described in subsection (2), mobile goods described in subsection (3), and minerals described in subsection (5).

(b) Except as otherwise provided in this subsection, perfection and the effect of perfection or nonperfection of a security interest in collateral are governed by the law of the jurisdiction where the collateral is when the last event occurs on which is based the assertion that the security interest is perfected or nonperfected.

(c) If the parties to a transaction creating a purchase money security interest in goods in one jurisdiction understand at the time that the security interest attaches that the goods will be kept in another jurisdiction, then the law of the other jurisdiction governs the perfection and the effect of perfection or nonperfection of the security interest from the time it attaches until thirty days after the debtor receives possession of the goods and thereafter if the goods are taken to the other jurisdiction before the end of the thirty-day period.

(d) When collateral is brought into and kept in this State, while subject to a security interest perfected under the law of the jurisdiction from which the collateral was removed, the security interest remains perfected, but if action is required by Part 3 of this chapter to perfect the security interest:

(i) if the action is not taken before the expiration of the period of perfection in the other jurisdiction or the end of four months after the collateral is brought into this State, whichever period first expires, the security interest becomes unperfected at the end of that period and is thereafter considered to have been unperfected as against a person who became a purchaser after removal;

(ii) if the action is taken before the expiration of the period specified in subparagraph (i), the security interest continues perfected thereafter;

(iii) for the purpose of priority over a buyer of consumer goods (subsection (2) of Section 36-9-307), the period of the effectiveness of a filing in the jurisdiction from which the collateral is removed is governed by the rules with respect to perfection in subparagraphs (i) and (ii).

(2) Certificate of title.

(a) This subsection applies to goods covered by a certificate of title issued under a statute of this State or of another jurisdiction under the law of which indication of a security interest on the certificate is required as a condition of perfection.

(b) Except as otherwise provided in this subsection, perfection and the effect of perfection or nonperfection of the security interest are governed by the law (including the conflict of laws rules) of the jurisdiction issuing the certificate until four months after the goods are removed from that jurisdiction and thereafter until the goods are registered in another jurisdiction, but in any event not beyond surrender of the certificate. After the expiration of that period, the goods are not covered by the certificate of title within the meaning of this section.

(c) Except with respect to the rights of a buyer described in the next paragraph, a security interest, perfected in another jurisdiction otherwise than by notation on a certificate of title, in goods brought into this State and thereafter covered by a certificate of title issued by this State is subject to the rules stated in paragraph (d) of subsection (1).

(d) If goods are brought into this State while a security interest is perfected in any manner under the law of the jurisdiction from which the goods are removed and a certificate of title is issued by this State and the certificate does not show that the goods are subject to the security interest or that they may be subject to security interests not shown on the certificate, the security interest is subordinate to the rights of a buyer of the goods who is not in the business of selling goods of that kind to the extent that he gives value and receives delivery of the goods after issuance of the certificate and without knowledge of the security interest.

(3) Accounts, general intangibles, and mobile goods.

(a) This subsection applies to accounts (other than an account described in subsection (5) on minerals) and general intangibles (other than uncertificated securities) and to goods which are mobile and which are of a type normally used in more than one jurisdiction, such as motor vehicles, trailers, rolling stock, airplanes, shipping containers, road building and construction machinery, and commercial harvesting machinery, and the like, if the goods are equipment or are inventory leased or held for lease by the debtor to others and are not covered by a certificate of title described in subsection (2).

(b) The law (including the conflict of laws rules) of the jurisdiction in which the debtor is located governs the perfection and the effect of perfection or nonperfection of the security interest.

(c) If, however, the debtor is located in a jurisdiction which is not a part of the United States, and which does not provide for perfection of the security interest by filing or recording in that jurisdiction, the law of the jurisdiction in the United States in which the debtor has its major executive office in the United States governs the perfection and the effect of perfection or nonperfection of the security interest through filing. In the alternative, if the debtor is located in a jurisdiction which is not a part of the United States or Canada and the collateral is accounts or general intangibles for money due or to become due, the security interest may be perfected by notification to the account debtor. As used in this paragraph, "United States" includes its territories and possessions and the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico.

(d) A debtor is considered located at his place of business if he has one, at his chief executive office if he has more than one place of business, otherwise at his residence. If, however, the debtor is a foreign air carrier under the Federal Aviation Act of 1958, as amended, it is considered located at the designated office of the agent upon whom service of process may be made on behalf of the foreign air carrier.

(e) A security interest perfected under the law of the jurisdiction of the location of the debtor is perfected until the expiration of four months after a change of the debtor's location to another jurisdiction, or until perfection would have ceased by the law of the first jurisdiction, whichever period first expires. Unless perfected in the new jurisdiction before the end of that period, it becomes unperfected thereafter and is considered to have been unperfected as against a person who became a purchaser after the change.

(4) Chattel paper.

The rules stated for goods in subsection (1) apply to a possessory security interest in chattel paper. The rules stated for accounts in subsection (3) apply to a nonpossessory security interest in chattel paper, but the security interest may not be perfected by notification to the account debtor.

(5) Minerals.

Perfection and the effect of perfection or nonperfection of a security interest which is created by the debtor who has an interest in minerals or the like (including oil and gas) before extraction and which attaches to the minerals of the like as extracted, or which attaches to an account resulting from the sale of the minerals or the like at the wellhead or minehead, are governed by the law (including the conflict of laws rules) of the jurisdiction where the wellhead or minehead is located.

(6) Uncertificated securities. The law (including the conflict of laws rules) of the jurisdiction of organization of the issuer governs the perfection and the effect of perfection or nonperfection of a security interest in uncertificated securities.

SECTION 36-9-104. Transactions excluded from chapter.



This chapter does not apply:

(a) to a security interest subject to any statute of the United States, to the extent that the statute governs the rights of parties to and third parties affected by transactions in particular types of property; or

(b) to a landlord's lien; or

(c) to a lien given by statute or other rule of law for services or materials except as provided in Section 36-9-310 on priority of the liens; or

(d) to a transfer of a claim for wages, salary, or other compensation of an employee; or

(e) to a transfer by a government or governmental subdivision or agency; or

(f) to a sale of accounts or chattel paper as part of a sale of the business out of which they arose, or an assignment of accounts or chattel paper which is for the purpose of collection only, or a transfer of a single account to an assignee in whole or partial satisfaction of a preexisting indebtedness; or

(g) to a transfer of an interest in or claim in or under any policy of insurance, except as provided with respect to proceeds (Section 36-9-306) and priorities in proceeds (Section 36-9-312); or

(h) to a right represented by a judgment (other than a judgment taken on a right to payment which was collateral); or

(i) to any right of setoff; or

(j) except to the extent that provision is made for fixtures in Section 36-9-313, to the creation or transfer of an interest in or lien on real estate, including a lease or rents; or

(k) to a transfer in whole or in part of any claim arising out of tort; or

(l) to a transfer of an interest in any deposit account (subsection (1) of Section 36-9-105), except as provided with respect to proceeds (Section 36-9-306) and priorities in proceeds (Section 36-9-312).

SECTION 36-9-105. Definitions and index of definitions.



(1) In this chapter unless the context otherwise requires:

(a) "Account debtor" means the person who is obligated on an account, chattel paper, or general intangible;

(b) "Chattel paper" means a writing or writings which evidence both a monetary obligation and a security interest in or a lease of specific goods, but a charter or other contract involving the use or hire of a vessel is not chattel paper. When a transaction is evidenced both by such a security agreement or a lease and by an instrument or a series of instruments, the group of writings taken together constitutes chattel paper;

(c) "Collateral" means the property subject to a security interest, and includes accounts and chattel paper which have been sold;

(d) "Debtor" means the person who owes payment or other performance of the obligation secured, whether or not he owns or has rights in the collateral, and includes the seller of accounts, contract rights, or chattel paper. Where the debtor and the owner of the collateral are not the same person, the term "debtor" means the owner of the collateral in any provision of the chapter dealing with the collateral, the obligor in any provision dealing with the obligation, and may include both where the context so requires;

(e) "Deposit account" means a demand, time, savings, passbook, or like account maintained with a bank, savings and loan association, credit union, or like organization, other than an account evidenced by a certificate of deposit;

(f) "Document" means document of title as defined in the general definitions of Chapter 1 (Section 36-1-201) and a receipt of the kind described in subsection (2) of Section 36-7-201;

(g) "Encumbrance" includes real estate mortgages and other liens on real estate and all other rights in real estate that are not ownership interests;

(h) "Goods" includes all things which are movable at the time the security interest attaches or which are fixtures (Section 36-9-313), but does not include money, documents, instruments, accounts, chattel paper, general intangibles, or minerals or the like (including oil and gas) before extraction. "Goods" also includes standing timber which is to be cut and removed under a conveyance or contract for sale, the unborn young of animals, and growing crops;

(i) "Instrument" means a negotiable instrument (defined in Section 36-3-104) or a certificated security (defined in Section 36-8-102) or any other writing which evidences a right to the payment of money and is not itself a security agreement or lease and is of a type which is in ordinary course of business transferred by delivery with any necessary endorsement or assignment;

(j) "Mortgage" means a consensual interest created by a real estate mortgage, a trust deed on real estate, or the like;

(k) An advance is made "pursuant to commitment" if the secured party has bound himself to make it, whether or not a subsequent event of default or other event not within his control has relieved or may relieve him from his obligation;

(l) "Security agreement" means an agreement which creates or provides for a security interest;

(m) "Secured party" means a lender, seller, or other person in whose favor there is a security interest, including a person to whom accounts or chattel paper have been sold. When the holders of obligations issued under an indenture of trust, equipment trust agreement, or the like are represented by a trustee or other person, the representative is the secured party;

(n) "Transmitting utility" means any person primarily engaged in the railroad, street railway, or trolley bus business, the electric or electronics communications transmission business, the transmission of goods by pipeline, or the transmission or the production and transmission of electricity, steam, gas, or water, or the provisions of sewer service.

(2) Other definitions applying to this chapter and the sections in which they appear are:

"Account" Section 36-9-106

"Attach" Section 36-9-203

"Construction mortgage" Section 36-9-313(1)

"Consumer goods" Section 36-9-109(1)

"Equipment" Section 36-9-109(2)

"Farm products" Section 36-9-109(3)

"Fixture" Section 36-9-313

"General intangibles" Section 36-9-106

"Inventory" Section 36-9-109(4)

"Lien creditor" Section 36-9-301(3)

"Proceeds" Section 36-9-306(1)

"Purchase Money security interest" Section 36-9-107

"United States" Section 36-9-103

(3) The following definitions in other chapters apply to this chapter:

"Check" Section 36-3-104

"Contract for sale" Section 36-2-106

"Holder in due course" Section 36-3-302

"Note" Section 36-3-104

"Sale" Section 36-2-106.

(4) In addition, Chapter 1 contains general definitions and principles of construction and interpretation applicable throughout this chapter.

SECTION 36-9-106. Definitions: "account" and "general intangibles".

"Account" means any right to payment for goods sold or leased or for services rendered which is not evidenced by an instrument or chattel paper, whether or not it has been earned by performance. "General intangibles" means any personal property (including things in action) other than goods, accounts, chattel paper, documents, instruments, and money. All rights to payment earned or unearned under a charter or other contract involving the use or hire of a vessel and all rights incident to the charter or contract are accounts.

SECTION 36-9-107. Definitions: "Purchase money security interest".



A security interest is a "purchase money security interest" to the extent that it is:

(a) taken or retained by the seller of the collateral to secure all or part of its price; or

(b) taken by a person who by making advances or incurring an obligation gives value to enable the debtor to acquire rights in or the use of collateral if such value is in fact so used.

SECTION 36-9-108. When after-acquired collateral not security for antecedent debt.

Where a secured party makes an advance, incurs an obligation, releases a perfected security interest, or otherwise gives new value which is to be secured in whole or in part by after-acquired property, his security interest in the after-acquired collateral is considered to be taken for new value and not as security for an antecedent debt if the debtor acquires his rights in the collateral either in the ordinary course of his business or under a contract of purchase made pursuant to the security agreement within a reasonable time after new value is given.

SECTION 36-9-109. Classification of goods; "consumer goods"; "equipment"; "farm products"; "inventory".



Goods are:

(1) "consumer goods" if they are used or bought for use primarily for personal, family, or household purposes;

(2) "equipment" if they are used or bought for use primarily in business (including farming or a profession) or by a debtor who is a nonprofit organization or a governmental subdivision or agency or if the goods are not included in the definitions of inventory, farm products, or consumer goods;

(3) "farm products" if they are crops or livestock or supplies used or produced in farming operations or if they are products of crops or livestock in their unmanufactured states (such as ginned cotton, wool-clip, maple syrup, milk, and eggs), and if they are in the possession of a debtor engaged in raising, fattening, grazing, or other farming operations. If goods are farm products they are neither equipment nor inventory;

(4) "inventory" if they are held by a person who holds them for sale or lease or to be furnished under contracts of service or he has so furnished them, or if they are raw materials, work in process, or materials used or consumed in a business. Inventory of a person is not to be classified as his equipment.

SECTION 36-9-110. Sufficiency of description.



For the purposes of this chapter any description of personal property or real estate is sufficient whether or not it is specific if it reasonably identifies what is described.

SECTION 36-9-111. Applicability of bulk transfer laws.

The creation of a security interest is not a bulk transfer under Chapter 6 (see Section 36-6-103).

SECTION 36-9-112. Where collateral is not owned by debtor.

Unless otherwise agreed, when a secured party knows that collateral is owned by a person who is not the debtor, the owner of the collateral is entitled to receive from the secured party any surplus under Section 36-9-502(2) or under Section 36-9-504(1), and is not liable for the debt or for any deficiency after resale, and he has the same right as the debtor:

(a) to receive statements under Section 36-9-208;

(b) to receive notice of and to object to a secured party's proposal to retain the collateral in satisfaction of the indebtedness under Section 36-9-505;

(c) to redeem the collateral under Section 36-9-506;

(d) to obtain injunctive or other relief under Section 36-9-507(1);

(e) to recover losses caused to him under Section 36-9-208(2).

SECTION 36-9-113. Security interests arising under chapter on sales.



A security interest arising solely under the chapter on Sales (Chapter 2) is subject to the provisions of this chapter except that to the extent that and so long as the debtor does not have or does not lawfully obtain possession of the goods:

(a) no security agreement is necessary to make the security interest enforceable;

(b) no filing is required to perfect the security interest;

(c) the rights of the secured party on default by the debtor are governed by the chapter on Sales (Chapter 2).

SECTION 36-9-114. Consignment.

(1) A person who delivers goods under a consignment which is not a security interest and who would be required to file under this chapter by paragraph (3)(c) of Section 36-2-326 has priority over a secured party who is or becomes a creditor of the consignee and who would have a perfected security interest in the goods if they were the property of the consignee, and also has priority with respect to identifiable cash proceeds received on or before delivery of the goods to a buyer, if

(a) the consignor complies with the filing provision of the chapter on Sales with respect to consignments (paragraph (3)(c) of Section 36-2-326) before the consignee receives possession of the goods;

(b) the consignor gives notification in writing to the holder of the security interest if the holder has filed a financing statement covering the same types of goods before the date of the filing made by the consignor;

(c) the holder of the security interest receives the notification within five years before the consignee receives possession of the goods;

(d) the notification states that the consignor expects to deliver goods on consignment to the consignee, describing the goods by item or type.

(2) In the case of a consignment which is not a security interest and in which the requirements of the preceding subsection have not been met, a person who delivers goods to another is subordinate to a person who would have a perfected security interest in the goods if they were the property of the debtor.

PART 2. VALIDITY OF SECURITY AGREEMENT AND RIGHTS OF PARTIES THERETO

SECTION 36-9-201. General validity of security agreement.



Except as otherwise provided by this title a security agreement is effective according to its terms between the parties, against purchasers of the collateral and against creditors. Nothing in this chapter validates any charge or practice illegal under any statute or regulation under the statute governing usury, small loans, retail installment sales, or the like, or extends the application of any statute or regulation to any transaction not otherwise subject to the statute or regulation.

SECTION 36-9-202. Title to collateral immaterial.

Each provision of this chapter with regard to rights, obligations, and remedies applies whether title to collateral is in the secured party or in the debtor.

SECTION 36-9-203. Attachment and enforceability of security interest; proceeds; formal requisites.



(1) Subject to the provisions of Section 36-4-208 on the security interest of a collecting bank, Section 36-8-321 on security interests in securities, and Section 36-9-113 on a security interest arising under the chapter on Sales, a security interest is not enforceable against the debtor or third parties with respect to the collateral and does not attach unless:

(a) the collateral is in the possession of the secured party pursuant to agreement, or the debtor has signed a security agreement which contains a description of the collateral and in addition, when the security interest covers crops growing or to be grown or timber to be cut, a description of the land concerned;

(b) value has been given;

(c) the debtor has rights in the collateral.

(2) A security interest attaches when it becomes enforceable against the debtor with respect to the collateral. Attachment occurs as soon as all of the events specified in subsection (1) have taken place unless explicit agreement postpones the time of attaching.

(3) Unless otherwise agreed a security agreement gives the secured party the rights to proceeds provided by Section 36-9-306.

(4) A transaction, although subject to this chapter, is also subject to statutes or regulations governing usury, small loans, retail installment sales or the like, including without limitation, Title 34 and Title 37, and in the case of conflict between the provisions of this chapter and any such statute, the provisions of the statute control. Failure to comply with any applicable statute has only the effect which is specified in the statute.

SECTION 36-9-204. After-acquired property; future advances.



(1) Except as provided in subsection (2), a security agreement may provide that any or all obligations covered by the security agreement are to be secured by after-acquired collateral.

(2) No security interest attaches under an after-acquired property clause to consumer goods other than accessions (Section 36-9-314) when given as additional security unless the debtor acquires rights in them within ten days after the secured party gives value.

(3) Obligations covered by a security agreement may include future advances or other value whether or not the advances or value are given pursuant to commitment (subsection (1) of Section 36-9-105).

SECTION 36-9-205. Use or disposition of collateral without accounting permissible.

A security interest is not invalid or fraudulent against creditors by reason of liberty in the debtor to use, commingle, or dispose of all or part of the collateral (including returned or repossessed goods) or to collect or compromise accounts or chattel paper, or to accept the return of goods or make repossessions, or to use, commingle, or dispose of proceeds, or by reason of the failure of the secured party to require the debtor to account for proceeds or replace collateral. This section does not relax the requirements of possession where perfection of a security interest depends upon possession of the collateral by the secured party or by a bailee.

SECTION 36-9-206. Agreement not to assert defenses against assignees; modification of sales warranties where security agreement exists.

(1) Subject to any statute or decision which establishes a different rule for buyers or lessees of consumer goods, an agreement by a buyer or lessee that he will not assert against an assignee any claim or defense which he may have against the seller or lessor is enforceable by an assignee who takes his assignment for value, in good faith and without notice of a claim or defense, except as to defenses of a type which may be asserted against a holder in due course of a negotiable instrument under the chapter on Commercial Paper (Chapter 3). A buyer who as part of one transaction signs both a negotiable instrument and a security agreement makes such an agreement.

(2) When a seller retains a purchase money security interest in goods the chapter on Sales (Chapter 2) governs the sale and any disclaimer, limitation, or modification of the seller's warranties.

SECTION 36-9-207. Rights and duties when collateral is in secured party's possession.



(1) A secured party must use reasonable care in the custody and preservation of collateral in his possession. In the case of an instrument or chattel paper reasonable care includes taking necessary steps to preserve rights against prior parties unless otherwise agreed.

(2) Unless otherwise agreed, when collateral is in the secured party's possession:

(a) reasonable expenses (including the cost of any insurance and payment of taxes or other charges) incurred in the custody, preservation, use, or operation of the collateral are chargeable to the debtor and are secured by the collateral;

(b) the risk of accidental loss or damage is on the debtor to the extent of any deficiency in any effective insurance coverage;

(c) the secured party may hold as additional security any increase or profits (except money) received from the collateral, but money so received, unless remitted to the debtor, must be applied in reduction of the secured obligation;

(d) the secured party must keep the collateral identifiable, but fungible collateral may be commingled;

(e) the secured party may repledge the collateral upon terms which do not impair the debtor's right to redeem it.

(3) A secured party is liable for any loss caused by his failure to meet any obligation imposed by the preceding subsections but does not lose his security interest.

(4) A secured party may use or operate the collateral for the purpose of preserving the collateral or its value or pursuant to the order of a court of appropriate jurisdiction or, except in the case of consumer goods, in the manner and to the extent provided in the security agreement.

SECTION 36-9-208. Request for statement of account or list of collateral.

(1) A debtor may sign a statement indicating what he believes to be the aggregate amount of unpaid indebtedness as of a specified date and may send it to the secured party with a request that the statement be approved or corrected and returned to the debtor. When the security agreement or any other record kept by the secured party identifies the collateral a debtor may similarly request the secured party to approve or correct a list of the collateral.

(2) The secured party must comply with a request within two weeks after receipt by sending a written correction or approval. If the secured party claims a security interest in all of a particular type of collateral owned by the debtor he may indicate that fact in his reply and need not approve or correct an itemized list of the collateral. If the secured party without reasonable excuse fails to comply he is liable for any loss caused to the debtor by noncompliance. If the debtor has properly included in his request a good faith statement of the obligation or a list of the collateral, or both, the secured party may claim a security interest only as shown in the statement against persons misled by his failure to comply. If he no longer has an interest in the obligation or collateral at the time the request is received he must disclose the name and address of any successor in interest known to him, and he is liable for any loss caused to the debtor as a result of failure to disclose. A successor in interest is not subject to this section until a request is received by him.

(3) A debtor is entitled to a statement once every six months without charge. The secured party may require payment of a charge not exceeding ten dollars for each additional statement furnished.

PART 3. RIGHTS OF THIRD PARTIES; PERFECTED AND UNPERFECTED SECURITY INTERESTS; RULES OF PRIORITY

SECTION 36-9-301. Persons who take priority over unperfected security interests; rights of "lien creditor".



(1) Except as otherwise provided in subsection (2), an unperfected security interest is subordinate to the rights of:

(a) persons entitled to priority under Section 36-9-312;

(b) a person who becomes a lien creditor before the security interest is perfected;

(c) in the case of goods, instruments, documents, and chattel paper, a person who is not a secured party and who is a transferee in bulk or other buyer not in ordinary course of business or is a buyer of farm products in ordinary course of business, to the extent that he gives value and receives delivery of the collateral without knowledge of the security interest and before it is perfected;

(d) in the case of accounts and general intangibles, a person who is not a secured party and who is a transferee to the extent that he gives value without knowledge of the security interest and before it is perfected.

(2) If the secured party files with respect to a purchase money security interest before or within twenty days after the debtor receives possession of the collateral, he takes priority over the rights of a transferee in bulk or of a lien creditor which arise between the time the security interest attaches and the time of filing.

(3) A "lien creditor" means a creditor who has acquired a lien on the property involved by attachment, levy, or the like and includes an assignee for benefit of creditors from the time of assignment, and a trustee in bankruptcy from the date of the filing of the petition or a receiver in equity from the time of appointment.

(4) A person who becomes a lien creditor while a security interest is perfected takes subject to the security interest with respect to both prior and future advances. Knowledge by the secured party of the lien does not impair the priority of the security interest with respect to advances thereafter made.

SECTION 36-9-302. When filing is required to perfect security interest; security interests to which filing provisions of this chapter do not apply.



(1) A financing statement must be filed to perfect all security interests except the following:

(a) a security interest in collateral in possession of the secured party under Section 36-9-305;

(b) a security interest temporarily perfected in instruments or documents without delivery under Section 36-9-304 or in proceeds for a ten-day period under Section 36-9-306;

(c) a security interest created by an assignment of a beneficial interest in a trust or decedent's estate;

(d) a purchase money security interest in consumer goods; but filing is required for a motor vehicle required to be registered; and fixture filing is required for priority over conflicting interests in fixtures to the extent provided in Section 36-9-313;

(e) an assignment of accounts which does not alone or in conjunction with other assignments to the same assignee transfer a significant part of the outstanding accounts of the assignor;

(f) a security interest of a collecting bank (Section 36-4-208) or in securities (Section 36-8-321) or arising under the chapter on Sales (Section 36-9-113) or covered in subsection (3) of this section;

(g) an assignment for the benefit of all the creditors of the transferor, and subsequent transfers by the assignee thereunder.

(2) If a secured party assigns a perfected security interest, no filing under this chapter is required in order to continue the perfected status of the security interest against creditors of and transferees from the original debtor.

(3) The filing of a financing statement otherwise required by this chapter is not necessary or effective to perfect a security interest in property subject to:

(a) a statute or treaty of the United States which provides for a national or international registration or a national or international certificate of title or which specifies a place of filing different from that specified in this chapter for filing the security interest; or

(b) Chapter 19 of Title 56 (Protection of title to and interests in motor vehicles and Chapter 23 of Title 50 (Filing of watercraft and outboard motors)); but during any period in which collateral is inventory held for sale by a person who is in the business of selling goods of that kind, the filing provisions of this chapter (Part 4) apply to a security interest in that collateral created by him as debtor; or

(c) a certificate of title statute of another jurisdiction under the law of which indication of a security interest on the certificate is required as a condition of perfection (subsection (2) of Section 36-9-103).

(4) Compliance with a statute or treaty described in subsection (3) is equivalent to the filing of a financing statement under this chapter, and a security interest in property subject to the statute or treaty can be perfected only by compliance except as provided in Section 36-9-103 on multiple-state transactions. Duration and renewal of perfection of a security interest perfected by compliance with the statute or treaty are governed by the provisions of the statute or treaty; in other respects, the security interest is subject to this chapter.

SECTION 36-9-303. When security interest is perfected; continuity of perfection.

(1) A security interest is perfected when it has attached and when all of the applicable steps required for perfection have been taken. The steps are specified in Sections 36-9-302, 36-9-304, 36-9-305, and 36-9-306. If the steps are taken before the security interest attaches, it is perfected at the time when it attaches.

(2) If a security interest is originally perfected in any way permitted under this chapter and is subsequently perfected in some other way under this chapter, without an intermediate period when it was unperfected, the security interest is considered to be perfected continuously for the purposes of this chapter.

SECTION 36-9-304. Perfection of security interest in instruments, documents, and goods covered by documents; perfection by permissive filing; temporary perfection without filing or transfer of possession.



(1) A security interest in chattel paper or negotiable documents may be perfected by filing. A security interest in money or instruments (other than certificated securities or instruments which constitute part of chattel paper) can be perfected only by the secured party's taking possession, except as provided in subsections (4) and (5) of this section and subsections (2) and (3) of Section 36-9-306 on proceeds.

(2) During the period that goods are in the possession of the issuer of a negotiable document therefor, a security interest in the goods is perfected by perfecting a security interest in the document, and any security interest in the goods otherwise perfected during such period is subject thereto.

(3) A security interest in goods in the possession of a bailee other than one who has issued a negotiable document therefor is perfected by the issuance of a document in the name of the secured party or by the bailee's receipt of notification of the secured party's interest or by filing as to the goods.

(4) A security interest in instruments or negotiable documents is perfected without filing or the taking of possession for a period of twenty-one days from the time it attaches to the extent that it arises for new value given under a written security agreement.

(5) A security interest remains perfected for a period of twenty-one days without filing where a secured party having a perfected security interest in an instrument (other than a certificated security), a negotiable document, or goods in possession of a bailee other than one who has issued a negotiable document for the goods:

(a) makes available to the debtor the goods or documents representing the goods for the purpose of ultimate sale or exchange or for the purpose of loading, unloading, storing, shipping, transshipping, manufacturing, processing, or otherwise dealing with them in a manner preliminary to their sale or exchange, but priority between conflicting security interest in the goods is subject to subsection (3) of Section 36-9-312; or

(b) delivers the instrument to the debtor for the purpose of ultimate sale or exchange or of presentation, collection, renewal, or registration of transfer.

(6) After the twenty-one day period in subsections (4) and (5) perfection depends upon compliance with the applicable provisions of this chapter.

SECTION 36-9-305. When possession by secured party perfects security interest without filing.

A security interest in letters of credit and advice of credit (subsection (2)(a) of Section 36-5-116), goods, instruments (other than certificated securities), money, negotiable documents, or chattel paper may be perfected by the secured party's taking possession of the collateral. If such collateral other than goods covered by a negotiable document is held by a bailee, the secured party is considered to have possession from the time the bailee receives notification of the secured party's interest. A security interest is perfected by possession from the time possession is taken without a relation back and continues only so long as possession is retained, unless otherwise specified in this chapter. The security interest may be otherwise perfected as provided in this chapter before or after the period of possession by the secured party.

SECTION 36-9-306. "Proceeds"; secured party's rights on disposition of collateral.



(1) "Proceeds" includes whatever is received upon the sale, exchange, collection, or other disposition of collateral or proceeds. Insurance payable by reason of loss or damage to the collateral is proceeds, except to the extent that it is payable to a person other than a party to the security agreement. Money, checks, deposit accounts, and the like are "cash proceeds". All other proceeds are "noncash proceeds".

(2) Except where this chapter otherwise provides, a security interest continues in collateral notwithstanding sale, exchange, or other disposition of the collateral unless the disposition was authorized by the secured party in the security agreement or otherwise, and also continues in any identifiable proceeds including collections received by the debtor.

(3) The security interest in proceeds is a continuously perfected security interest if the interest in the original collateral was perfected but it ceases to be a perfected security interest and becomes unperfected ten days after receipt of the proceeds by the debtor unless:

(a) a filed financing statement covers the original collateral and the proceeds are collateral in which a security interest may be perfected by filing in the office or offices where the financing statement has been filed and, if the proceeds are acquired with cash proceeds, the description of collateral in the financing statement indicates the types of property constituting the proceeds; or

(b) a filed financing statement covers the original collateral and the proceeds are identifiable cash proceeds; or

(c) the security interest in the proceeds is perfected before the expiration of the ten-day period.

Except as provided in this section, a security interest in proceeds can be perfected only by the methods or under the circumstances permitted in this chapter for original collateral of the same type.

(4) In the event of insolvency proceedings instituted by or against a debtor, a secured party with a perfected security interest in proceeds has a perfected security interest only in the following proceeds:

(a) in identifiable noncash proceeds and in separate deposit accounts containing only proceeds;

(b) in identifiable cash proceeds in the form of money which is neither commingled with other money nor deposited in a deposit account prior to the insolvency proceedings;

(c) in identifiable cash proceeds in the form of checks and the like which are not deposited in a deposit account prior to the insolvency proceedings;

(d) in all cash and deposit accounts of the debtor in which proceeds have been commingled with other funds, but the perfected security interest under this paragraph (d) is:

(i) subject to any right to set-off;

(ii) limited to an amount not greater than the amount of any cash proceeds received by the debtor within ten days before the institution of the insolvency proceedings less the sum of (1) the payments to the secured party on account of cash proceeds received by the debtor during the period and (2) the cash proceeds received by the debtor during the period to which the secured party is entitled under paragraphs (a) through (c) of this subsection (4).

(5) If a sale of goods results in an account or chattel paper which is transferred by the seller to a secured party, and if the goods are returned to or are repossessed by the seller or the secured party, the following rules determine priorities:

(a) If the goods were collateral at the time of sale, for an indebtedness of the seller which is still unpaid, the original security interest attaches again to the goods and continues as a perfected security interest if it was perfected at the time when the goods were sold. If the security interest was originally perfected by a filing which is still effective, nothing further is required to continue the perfected status; in any other case, the secured party must take possession of the returned or repossessed goods or must file.

(b) An unpaid transferee of the chattel paper has a security interest in the goods against the transferor. The security interest is prior to a security interest asserted under paragraph (a) to the extent that the transferee of the chattel paper was entitled to priority under Section 36-9-308.

(c) An unpaid transferee of the account has a security interest in the goods against the transferor. The security interest is subordinate to a security interest asserted under paragraph (a).

(d) A security interest of an unpaid transferee asserted under paragraph (b) or (c) must be perfected for protection against creditors of the transferor and purchasers of the returned or repossessed goods.

SECTION 36-9-307. Protection of buyers of goods.



(1) A buyer in ordinary course of business (subsection (9) of Section 36-1-201) other than a person buying farm products from a person engaged in farming operations takes free of a security interest created by his seller even though the security interest is perfected and even though the buyer knows of its existence.

(2) In the case of consumer goods, a buyer takes free of a security interest even though perfected if he buys without knowledge of the security interest, for value and for his own personal, family, or household purposes unless prior to the purchase the secured party has filed a financing statement covering the goods.

(3) A buyer other than a buyer in ordinary course of business (subsection (1) of this section) takes subject to a security interest with respect to both prior and future advances if the security interest is perfected or if the buyer has knowledge of the security interest. Knowledge by the secured party of the interest of the buyer does not impair the priority of the security interest with respect to advances thereafter made.

(4) In the case of a purchase of a motor vehicle made pursuant to the provisions of Section 29-15-10, the buyer takes free of a security interest even though perfected, and the Department of Public Safety shall upon request issue a new title free and clear of prior liens and encumbrances.

SECTION 36-9-308. Purchase of chattel paper and instruments.

A purchaser of chattel paper or an instrument who gives new value and takes possession of it in the ordinary course of his business has priority over a security interest in the chattel paper or instrument:

(a) which is perfected under Section 36-9-304 (permissive filing and temporary perfection) or under Section 36-9-306 (perfection as to proceeds) if he acts without knowledge that the specific paper or instrument is subject to a security interest; or

(b) which is claimed merely as proceeds of inventory subject to a security interest (Section 36-9-306), even though he knows that the specific paper or instrument is subject to the security interest.

SECTION 36-9-309. Protection of purchasers of instruments, documents, and securities.

Nothing in this chapter limits the rights of a holder in due course of a negotiable instrument (Section 36-3-302) or a holder to whom a negotiable document of title has been duly negotiated (Section 36-7-501) or a bona fide purchaser of a security (Section 36-8-302), and the holders or purchasers take priority over an earlier security interest even though perfected. Filing under this chapter does not constitute notice of the security interest to the holders or purchasers.

SECTION 36-9-310. Priority of certain liens arising by operation of law.



When a person in the ordinary course of his business furnishes services or materials with respect to goods subject to a security interest, a lien upon goods in the possession of the person given by statute or rule of law for the materials or services takes priority over a perfected security interest unless the lien is statutory and the statute expressly provides otherwise.

SECTION 36-9-311. Alienability of debtor's rights; judicial process.



The debtor's rights in collateral may be voluntarily or involuntarily transferred (by way of sale, creation of a security interest, attachment, levy, garnishment, or other judicial process) notwithstanding a provision in the security agreement prohibiting any transfer or making the transfer constitute a default.

SECTION 36-9-312. Priorities among conflicting security interests in the same collateral.



(1) The rules of priority stated in other sections of this part and in the following sections shall govern when applicable: Section 36-4-208 with respect to the security interests of collecting banks in items being collected, accompanying documents and proceeds; Section 36-9-103 on security interests related to other jurisdictions; Section 36-9-114 on consignments.

(2) A perfected security interest in crops for new value given to enable the debtor to produce the crops during the production season and given not more than three months before the crops become growing crops by planting or otherwise takes priority over an earlier perfected security interest to the extent that the earlier interest secures obligations due more than six months before the crops become growing crops by planting or otherwise, even though the person giving new value had knowledge of the earlier security interest.

(3) A perfected purchase money security interest in inventory has priority over a conflicting security interest in the same inventory and also has priority in identifiable cash proceeds received on or before the delivery of the inventory to a buyer if:

(a) the purchase money security interest is perfected at the time the debtor receives possession of the inventory;

(b) the purchase money secured party gives notification in writing to the holder of the conflicting security interest if the holder had filed a financing statement covering the same types of inventory (i) before the date of the filing made by the purchase money secured party, or (ii) before the beginning of the twenty-one day period where the purchase money security interest is temporarily perfected without filing or possession (subsection (5) of Section 36-9-304);

(c) the holder of the conflicting security interest receives the notification within five years before the debtor receives possession of the inventory; and

(d) the notification states that the person giving the notice has or expects to acquire a purchase money security interest in inventory of the debtor, describing the inventory by item or type.

(4) A purchase money security interest in collateral other than inventory has priority over a conflicting security interest in the same collateral or its proceeds if the purchase money security interest is perfected at the time the debtor receives possession of the collateral or within twenty days thereafter.

(5) In all cases not governed by other rules stated in this section (including cases of purchase money security interests which do not qualify for the special priorities set forth in subsections (3) and (4) of this section), priority between conflicting security interests in the same collateral must be determined according to the following rules:

(a) Conflicting security interests rank according to priority in time of filing or perfection. Priority dates from the time a filing is first made covering the collateral or the time the security interest is first perfected, whichever is earlier, provided that there is no period thereafter when there is neither filing nor perfection.

(b) So long as conflicting security interests are unperfected, the first to attach has priority.

(6) For the purposes of subsection (5) a date of filing or perfection as to collateral is also a date of filing or perfection as to proceeds.

(7) If future advances are made while a security interest is perfected by filing or the taking of possession or under Section 36-8-321 on securities, the security interest has the same priority for the purposes of subsection (5) with respect to the future advances as it does with respect to the first advance. If a commitment is made before or while the security interest is perfected, the security interest has the same priority with respect to advances made thereto. In other cases a perfected security interest has priority from the date the advance is made.

SECTION 36-9-313. Priority of security interests in fixtures.

(1) In this section and in the provisions of Part 4 of this chapter referring to fixture filing, unless the context otherwise requires:

(a) goods are "fixtures" when they become so related to particular real estate that an interest in them arises under real estate law;

(b) a "fixture filing" is the filing in the office where a mortgage on the real estate would be filed or recorded of a financing statement covering goods which are or are to become fixtures and conforming to the requirements of subsection (5) of Section 36-9-402;

(c) a mortgage is a "construction mortgage" to the extent that it secures an obligation incurred for the construction of an improvement on land including the acquisition cost of the land, if the recorded writing so indicates.

(2) A security interest under this chapter may be created in goods which are fixtures or may continue in goods which become fixtures, but no security interest exists under this chapter in ordinary building materials incorporated into an improvement on land.

(3) This chapter does not prevent creation of an encumbrance upon fixtures pursuant to real estate law.

(4) A perfected security interest in fixtures has priority over the conflicting interest of an encumbrancer or owner of the real estate where:

(a) the security interest is a purchase money security interest, the interest of the encumbrancer or owner arises before the goods become fixtures, the security interest is perfected by a fixture filing before the goods become fixtures or within twenty days thereafter, and the debtor has an interest of record in the real estate or is in possession of the real estate; or

(b) the security interest is perfected by a fixture filing before the interest of the encumbrancer or owner is of record, the security interest has priority over any conflicting interest of a predecessor in title of the encumbrancer or owner, and the debtor has an interest of record in the real estate or is in possession of the real estate; or

(c) the fixtures are readily removable factory or office machines or readily removable replacements of domestic appliances which are consumer goods, and before the goods become fixtures the security interest is perfected by any method permitted by this chapter; or

(d) the conflicting interest is a lien on the real estate obtained by legal or equitable proceedings after the security interest was perfected by any method permitted by this chapter.

(5) A security interest in fixtures, whether or not perfected, has priority over the conflicting interest of an encumbrancer or owner of the real estate where:

(a) the encumbrancer or owner has consented in writing to the security interest or has disclaimed an interest in the goods as fixtures; or

(b) the debtor has a right to remove the goods as against the encumbrancer or owner. If the debtor's right terminates, the priority of the security interest continues for a reasonable time.

(6) Notwithstanding paragraph (a) of subsection (4) but otherwise subject to subsections (4) and (5), a security interest in fixtures is subordinate to a construction mortgage recorded before the goods become fixtures if the goods become fixtures before the completion of the construction. To the extent that it is given to refinance a construction mortgage, a mortgage has this priority to the same extent as the construction mortgage.

(7) In cases not within the preceding subsections, a security interest in fixtures is subordinate to the conflicting interest of an encumbrancer or owner of the related real estate who is not the debtor.

(8) When the secured party has priority over all owners and encumbrancers of the real estate, he may, on default, subject to the provisions of Part 5, remove his collateral from the real estate but he must reimburse any encumbrancer or owner of the real estate who is not the debtor and who has not otherwise agreed for the cost of repair of any physical injury, but not for any diminution in value of the real estate caused by the absence of the goods removed or by any necessity of replacing them. A person entitled to reimbursement may refuse permission to remove until the secured party gives adequate security for the performance of this obligation.

SECTION 36-9-314. Accessions.



(1) A security interest in goods which attaches before they are installed in or affixed to other goods takes priority as to the goods installed or affixed (called in this section "accessions") over the claims of all persons to the whole except as stated in subsection (3) and subject to Section 36-9-315(1).

(2) A security interest which attaches to goods after they become part of a whole is valid against all persons subsequently acquiring interests in the whole except as stated in subsection (3), but is invalid against any person with an interest in the whole at the time the security interest attaches to the goods who has not in writing consented to the security interest or disclaimed an interest in the goods as part of the whole.

(3) The security interests described in subsections (1) and (2) do not take priority over:

(a) a subsequent purchaser for value of any interest in the whole; or

(b) a creditor with a lien on the whole subsequently obtained by judicial proceedings; or

(c) a creditor with a prior perfected security interest in the whole to the extent that he makes subsequent advances if the subsequent purchase is made, the lien by judicial proceedings obtained or the subsequent advance under the prior perfected security interest is made or contracted for without knowledge of the security interest and before it is perfected. A purchaser of the whole at a foreclosure sale other than the holder of a perfected security interest purchasing at his own foreclosure sale is a subsequent purchaser within this section.

(4) When under subsections (1) or (2) and (3) a secured party has an interest in accessions which has priority over the claims of all persons who have interests in the whole, he may on default subject to the provisions of Part 5 remove his collateral from the whole but he must reimburse any encumbrancer or owner of the whole who is not the debtor and who has not otherwise agreed for the cost of repair of any physical injury but not for any diminution in value of the whole caused by the absence of the goods removed or by any necessity for replacing them. A person entitled to reimbursement may refuse permission to remove until the secured party gives adequate security for the performance of this obligation.

SECTION 36-9-315. Priority when goods are commingled or processed.

(1) If a security interest in goods was perfected and subsequently the goods or a part of the goods have become part of a product or mass, the security interest continues in the product or mass if:

(a) the goods are so manufactured, processed, assembled, or commingled that their identity is lost in the product or mass; or

(b) a financing statement covering the original goods also covers the product into which the goods have been manufactured, processed, or assembled.

In a case to which paragraph (b) applies, no separate security interest in that part of the original goods which has been manufactured, processed, or assembled into the product may be claimed under Section 36-9-314.

(2) When under subsection (1) more than one security interest attaches to the product or mass, they rank equally according to the ratio that the cost of the goods to which each interest originally attached bears to the cost of the total product or mass.

SECTION 36-9-316. Priority subject to subordination.

Nothing in this chapter prevents subordination by agreement by any person entitled to priority.

SECTION 36-9-317. Secured party not obligated on contract of debtor.

The mere existence of a security interest or authority given to the debtor to dispose of or use collateral does not impose contract or tort liability upon the secured party for the debtor's acts or omissions.

SECTION 36-9-318. Defenses against assigns; modification of contract after notification of assignment; term prohibiting assignment ineffective; identification and proof of assignment.



(1) Unless an account debtor has made an enforceable agreement not to assert defenses or claims arising out of a sale as provided in Section 36-9-206 the rights of an assignee are subject to:

(a) all terms of the contract between the account debtor and assignor and any defense or claim arising from the terms of the contract;

(b) any other defense or claim of the account debtor against the assignor which accrues before the account debtor receives notification of the assignment.

(2) So far as the right to payment or a part of the payment under an assigned contract has not been fully earned by performance, and notwithstanding notification of the assignment, any modification of or substitution for the contract made in good faith and in accordance with reasonable commercial standards is effective against an assignee unless the account debtor has otherwise agreed, but the assignee acquires corresponding rights under the modified or substituted contract. The assignment may provide that the modification or substitution is a breach by the assignor.

(3) The account debtor is authorized to pay the assignor until the account debtor receives notification that the amount due or to become due has been assigned and that payment is to be made to the assignee. A notification which does not reasonably identify the rights assigned is ineffective. If requested by the account debtor, the assignee must seasonably furnish reasonable proof that the assignment has been made, and unless he does so the account debtor may pay the assignor.

(4) A term in any contract between an account debtor and an assignor is ineffective if it prohibits assignment of an account or prohibits creation of a security interest in a general intangible for money due or to become due or requires the account debtor's consent to the assignment or security interest.

SECTION 36-9-319. Sale of secured property without consent.

Notwithstanding Section 36-9-311, any person who sells or disposes of any personal property subject to a security interest, except for personal property titled by the Department of Public Safety or the Natural Resources Enforcement Division of the South Carolina Department of Natural Resources, without the written consent of the secured party, and fails to pay the debt secured by the security interests within ten days after sale or disposal or fails in this time to deposit the amount of the debt with the clerk of the court of common pleas for the county in which the secured party resides is guilty of a misdemeanor and, upon conviction, must be fined not more than one thousand dollars or imprisoned for not more than one year, or both. This section does not apply when the sale is made without knowledge or notice of the security interest by the person selling the property. When the value of the property is less than two thousand five hundred dollars, the offense is triable in the magistrate's court and the punishment must be not more than is permitted by law without presentment or indictment by the grand jury. Otherwise, the offense is triable in the court of general sessions.

PART 4. FILING

SECTION 36-9-401. Place of filing; erroneous filing; removal of collateral.



(1) The proper place to file in order to perfect a security interest is as follows:

(a) when the collateral is equipment used in farming operations, or farm products, or accounts or general intangibles arising from or relating to the sale of farm products by a farmer, or consumer goods, then in the office of the register of deeds or the clerk of court in the county of the debtor's residence or if the debtor is not a resident of this State then in the office of the register of deeds or the clerk of court in the county where the goods are kept, and in addition when the collateral is crops growing or to be grown in the office of the register of deeds or the clerk of court in the county where the land is located;

(b) when the collateral is timber to be cut or is minerals or the like (including oil and gas) or accounts subject to subsection (5) of Section 36-9-103, or when the financing statement is filed as a fixture filing (Section 36-9-313) and the collateral is goods which are or are to become fixtures, then in the office where a mortgage on the real estate would be filed or recorded;

(c) in all other cases, in the office of the Secretary of State.

(2) A filing which is made in good faith in an improper place or not in all of the places required by this section is nevertheless effective with regard to any collateral as to which the filing complied with the requirements of this chapter and is also effective with regard to collateral covered by the financing statement against any person who has knowledge of the contents of the financing statement.

(3) A filing which is made in the proper place in this State continues effective even though the debtor's residence or place of business or the location of the collateral or its use, whichever controlled the original filing, is thereafter changed.

(4) The rules stated in Section 36-9-103 determine whether filing is necessary in this State.

(5) Notwithstanding the preceding subsections, and subject to subsection (3) of Section 36-9-302, the proper place to file in order to perfect a security interest in collateral including fixtures of a transmitting utility is the office of the Secretary of State. This filing constitutes a fixture filing (Section 36-9-313) as to the collateral described which is or is to become fixtures.

(6) For the purposes of this section, the residence of an organization is its place of business if it has one or its chief executive office if it has more than one place of business.

SECTION 36-9-402. Formal requisites of financing statement; amendments; mortgage as financing statement.



(1) A financing statement is sufficient if it gives the names of the debtor and the secured party, is signed by the debtor, gives an address of the secured party from which information concerning the security interest may be obtained, gives a mailing address of the debtor, and contains a statement indicating the types, or describing the items, of collateral. A financing statement may be filed before a security agreement is made or a security interest otherwise attaches. When the financing statement covers crops growing or to be grown, the statement shall also contain a description of the real estate concerned. When the financing statement covers timber to be cut or covers minerals or the like (including oil and gas) or accounts subject to subsection (5) of Section 36-9-103, or when the financing statement is filed as fixture filing (Section 36-9-313) and the collateral is goods which are or are to become fixtures, the statement shall also comply with subsection (5). A copy of the security agreement is sufficient as a financing statement if it contains the above information and is signed by the debtor. A carbon, photographic, or other reproduction of a security agreement or a financing statement is sufficient as a financing statement if the security agreement so provides or if the original has been filed in this State.

(2) A financing statement which otherwise complies with subsection (1) is sufficient when it is signed by the secured party instead of the debtor if it is filed to perfect a security interest in:

(a) collateral already subject to a security interest in another jurisdiction when it is brought into this State, or when the debtor's location is changed to this State. The financing statement must state that the collateral was brought into this State under such circumstances; or

(b) proceeds under Section 36-9-306 if the security interest in the original collateral was perfected. The financing statement must describe the original collateral; or

(c) collateral as to which the filing has lapsed; or

(d) collateral acquired after a change of name, identity, or corporate structure of the creditor or the debtor (subsection (7)).

(3) A form substantially as follows is sufficient to comply with subsection (1):

Name of debtor (or assignor) ___

Address ___

Name of secured party (or assignee) ___

Address___

1. This financing statement covers the following types (or items) of property:

(Describe) ___

2. (If collateral is crops) The above described crops are growing or are to be grown on:

(Describe Real Estate) ___

___

3. (If applicable) the above goods are to become fixtures on ___

(Describe Real Estate) ___

___

and this financing statement is to be filed in the real estate records. (If the debtor does not have an interest of record) The name of a record owner is



In lieu of the language "The above goods are to become fixtures on ___ contained above, the following language where appropriate may be substituted: "The above timber is standing on __________ or "The above minerals or the like (including oil and gas) or accounts will be financed at the wellhead or minehead of the well or mine located on ___

4. (If products of collateral are claimed) Products of the collateral are also covered.

(use whichever is applicable)

___

Signature of Debtor (or Assignor)

___

Signature of Secured Party (or Assignee).

(4) A financing statement may be amended by filing a writing signed by both the debtor and the secured party. An amendment does not extend the period of effectiveness of a financing statement. If any amendment adds collateral, it is effective as to the added collateral only from the filing date of the amendment. In this chapter, unless the context otherwise requires, the term "financing statement" means the original financing statement and any amendments.

(5) A financing statement covering timber to be cut or covering minerals or the like (including oil and gas) or accounts subject to subsection (5) of Section 36-9-103, or a financing statement filed as a fixture filing (Section 36-9-313) where the debtor is not a transmitting utility, shall show that it covers this type of collateral, it shall recite that it is to be filed in the real estate records, and the financing statement shall contain a description of the real estate. If the debtor does not have an interest of record in the real estate, the financing statement shall show the name of a record owner.

(6) A mortgage is effective as a financing statement filed as a fixture filing from the date of its recording if:

(a) the goods are described in the mortgage by item or type;

(b) the goods are or are to become fixtures related to the real estate described in the mortgage;

(c) the mortgage complies with the requirements for a financing statement in this section other than a recital that it is to be filed in the real estate records;

(d) the mortgage is duly recorded. No fee with reference to the financing statement is required other than the regular recording and satisfaction fees with respect to the mortgage.

(7) A financing statement sufficiently shows the name of the debtor if it gives the individual, partnership, or corporate name of the debtor, whether or not it adds other trade names or names of partners. Where the debtor so changes his name or in the case of an organization its name, identity, or corporate structure that a filed financing statement becomes seriously misleading, the filing is not effective to perfect a security interest in collateral acquired by the debtor more than four months after the change, unless a new appropriate financing statement is filed before the expiration of that time. A filed financing statement remains effective with respect to collateral transferred by the debtor even though the secured party knows of or consents to the transfer.

(8) A financing statement substantially complying with the requirements of this section is effective even though it contains minor errors which are not seriously misleading.

SECTION 36-9-403. What constitutes filing; duration of filing; effect of lapsed filing; duties of filing officer.



(1) Presentation for filing of a financing statement and tender of the filing fee or acceptance of the statement by the filing officer constitutes filing under this chapter.

(2) Except as provided in subsection (6) a filed financing statement is effective for a period of five years from the date of filing. The effectiveness of a filed financing statement lapses on the expiration of the five-year period unless a continuation statement is filed prior to the lapse. If a security interest perfected by filing exists at the time insolvency proceedings are commenced by or against the debtor, the security interest remains perfected until termination of the insolvency proceedings and thereafter for a period of sixty days or until expiration of the five-year period, whichever occurs later. Upon lapse the security interest becomes unperfected, unless it is perfected without filing. If the security interest becomes unperfected upon lapse, it is considered to have been unperfected as against a person who became a purchaser or lien creditor before lapse.

(3) A continuation statement may be filed by the secured party within six months prior to the expiration of the five-year period specified in subsection (2). Any continuation statement must be signed by the secured party, identify the original statement by file number, and state that the original statement is still effective. A continuation statement signed by a person other than the secured party of record must be accompanied by a separate written statement of assignment signed by the secured party of record and complying with subsection (2) of Section 36-9-405, including payment of the required fee. Upon timely filing of the continuation statement, the effectiveness of the original statement is continued for five years after the last date to which the filing was effective whereupon it lapses in the same manner as provided in subsection (2) unless another continuation statement is filed prior to the lapse. Succeeding continuation statements may be filed in the same manner to continue the effectiveness of the original statement. Unless a statute on disposition of public records provides otherwise, the filing officer may remove a lapsed statement from the files and destroy it immediately if he has retained a microfilm or other photographic record, or in other cases after one year after the lapse. The filing officer shall so arrange matters by physical annexation of financing statements to continuation statements or other related filings, or by other means, that if he physically destroys the financing statements of a period more than five years past, those which have been continued by a continuation statement or which are still effective under subsection (6) are retained.

(4) Except as provided in subsection (7) a filing officer shall mark each statement with a file number and with the date and hour of filing and shall hold the statement or a microfilm or other photographic copy of the statement for public inspection. In addition the filing officer shall index the statements according to the name of the debtor and shall note in the index the file number and the address of the debtor given in the statement.

(5) The uniform fee for filing and indexing and for stamping a copy furnished by the secured party to show the date and place of filing for an original financing statement or for a continuation statement is eight dollars if the statement is in the standard form prescribed by the Secretary of State and otherwise is ten dollars, plus in each case, if the financing statement is subject to subsection (5) of Section 36-9-402, two dollars. The uniform fee for each name more than one required to be indexed is two dollars. The secured party may at his option show a trade name for any person and an extra uniform indexing fee of two dollars must be paid with respect thereto.

(6) If the debtor is a transmitting utility (subsection (5) of Section 36-9-401) and a filed financing statement so states, it is effective until a termination statement is filed. A real estate mortgage which is effective as a fixture filing under subsection (6) of Section 36-9-402 remains effective as a fixture filing until the mortgage is released or satisfied of record or its effectiveness otherwise terminates as to the real estate.

(7) When a financing statement covers timber to be cut or covers minerals or the like (including oil and gas) or accounts subject to subsection (5) of Section 36-9-103, or is filed as a fixture filing, the filing officer shall index it under the names of the debtor and any owner of record shown on the financing statement in the same fashion as if they were the mortgagors in a mortgage of the real estate described, and, to the extent that the law of this State provides for indexing of mortgages under the name of the mortgagee, under the name of the secured party as if he were the mortgagee thereunder, or where indexing is by description in the same fashion as if the financing statement were a mortgage of the real estate described.

SECTION 36-9-404. Termination statement.

(1) Whenever a secured party collects in advance from the debtor a fee for filing a termination statement in connection with a transaction in which on or after the effective date of the 'Consumer Protection Code Revision Act of 1982' the secured party files a financing statement covering consumer goods, then within one month or within ten days following written demand by the debtor after there is no outstanding secured obligation and no commitment to make advances, incur obligations or otherwise give value, the secured party shall file with each filing officer with whom the financing statement was filed, a termination statement to the effect that he no longer claims a security interest under the financing statement, which must be identified by file number. In other cases, whenever there is no outstanding secured obligation and no commitment to make advances, incur obligations or otherwise give value, the secured party shall, on written demand by the debtor, send the debtor, for each filing officer with whom the financing statement was filed, a termination statement to the effect that he no longer claims a secured interest under the financing statement, which must be identified by file number. A termination statement signed by a person other than the secured party of record must be accompanied by a separate written statement of assignment signed by the secured party of record complying with subsection (2) of Section 36-9-405, including payment of the required fee. If the affected secured party fails to file a termination statement as required by this subsection, or to send a termination statement within ten days after proper demand for the termination statement he is liable to the debtor for one hundred dollars and, in addition, for any loss caused to the debtor by the failure.

(2) On presentation to the filing officer of a termination statement he must note it in the index. If he has received the termination statement in duplicate, he shall return one copy of the termination statement to the secured party stamped to show the time of receipt of the termination statement. If the filing officer has a microfilm or other photographic record of the financing statement, and of any related continuation statement, statement of assignment, and statement of release, he may remove the originals from the files at any time after receipt of the termination statement, or if he has no such record, he may remove them from the files at any time after one year after receipt of the termination statement.

(3) If the termination statement is in the standard form prescribed by the Secretary of State, the uniform fee for filing and indexing the termination statement is eight dollars, and otherwise is ten dollars, plus in each case an additional fee of two dollars for each name more than one against which the termination statement is required to be indexed.

SECTION 36-9-405. Assignment of security interest; duties of filing officer; fees.



(1) A financing statement may disclose an assignment of a security interest in the collateral described in the financing statement by indication in the financing statement of the name and address of the assignee or by an assignment itself or a copy of the assignment on the face or back of the statement. On presentation to the filing officer of the financing statement, the filing officer shall mark the financing statement as provided in Section 36-9-403(4). The uniform fee for filing, indexing, and furnishing filing data for a financing statement so indicating an assignment is eight dollars if the statement is in the standard form prescribed by the Secretary of State and otherwise is ten dollars, plus in each case an additional fee of two dollars for each name more than one against which the financing statement is required to be indexed.

(2) A secured party of record may assign all or part of his rights under a financing statement by the filing in the place where the original financing statement was filed of a separate written statement of assignment signed by the secured party of record and setting forth the name of the secured party of record and the debtor, the file number, and the date of filing of the financing statement and the name and address of the assignee and containing a description of the collateral assigned. A copy of the assignment is sufficient as a separate statement if it complies with the preceding sentence. On presentation to the filing officer of a separate statement, the filing officer shall mark the separate statement with the date and hour of the filing. He shall note the assignment on the index of the financing statement, or in the case of a fixture filing, or a filing covering timber to be cut, or covering minerals or the like (including oil and gas) or accounts subject to subsection (5) of Section 36-9-103, he shall index the assignment under the name of the assignor as grantor and, to the extent that the law of this State provides for indexing the assignment of a mortgage under the name of the assignee, he shall index the assignment of the financing statement under the name of the assignee. The uniform fee for filing, indexing, and furnishing filing data about a separate statement of assignment is eight dollars if the statement is in the standard form prescribed by the Secretary of State and otherwise is ten dollars, plus in each case an additional fee of two dollars for each name more than one against which the statement of assignment is required to be indexed. Notwithstanding the provisions of this subsection, an assignment of record of a security interest in a fixture contained in a mortgage effective as a fixture filing (subsection (6) of Section 36-9-402) may be made only by an assignment of the mortgage in the manner provided by the law of this State other than this title.

(3) After the disclosure or filing of an assignment under this section, the assignee is the secured party of record.

SECTION 36-9-406. Release of collateral; duties of filing officer; fees.

A secured party of record may by his signed statement release all or a part of any collateral described in a filed financing statement. The statement of release is sufficient if it contains a description of the collateral being released, the name and address of the debtor, the name and address of the secured party, and the file number of the financing statement. A statement of release signed by a person other than the secured party of record must be accompanied by a separate written statement of assignment signed by the secured party of record and complying with subsection (2) of Section 36-9-405, including payment of the required fee. Upon presentation of a statement of release to the filing officer he shall mark the statement with the hour and date of filing and shall note the same upon the margin of the index of the filing of the financing statement. The uniform fee for filing and noting a statement of release is eight dollars if the statement is in the standard form prescribed by the Secretary of State and otherwise is ten dollars, plus in each case an additional fee of two dollars for each name more than one against which the statement of release is required to be indexed.

SECTION 36-9-407. Information from filing officer.

(1) If the person filing any financing statement, termination statement, statement of assignment, or statement of release, furnishes the filing officer a copy of the statement, the filing officer shall upon request note upon the copy the file number and date and hour of the filing of the original and deliver or send the copy to the person.

(2) Upon request of any person, the filing officer shall issue his certificate showing whether there is on file on the date and hour stated in the certificate, any presently effective financing statement naming a particular debtor and any statement of assignment thereof and if there is, giving the date and hour of filing of each statement and the names and addresses of each secured party in the statement. The uniform fee for the certificate is five dollars if the request for the certificate is in the standard form prescribed by the Secretary of State and otherwise is eight dollars plus one dollar for each financing statement and for each statement of assignment reported therein. Upon request the filing officer shall furnish a copy of any filed financing statement or statement of assignment for a uniform fee of one dollar per page plus two dollars for certifying the copy.

SECTION 36-9-408. Financing statements covering consigned or leased goods.

A consignor or lessor of goods may file a financing statement using the terms "consignor", "consignee", "lessor", "lessee" or the like instead of the terms specified in Section 36-9-402. The provisions of this part shall apply as appropriate to the financing statement but its filing must not of itself be a factor in determining whether or not the consignment or lease is intended as security [Section 36-1-201(37)]. However, if it is determined for other reasons that the consignment or lease is so intended, a security interest of the consignor or lessor which attaches to the consigned or leased goods is perfected by filing.

PART 5. DEFAULT

SECTION 36-9-501. Default; procedure when security agreement covers both real and personal property.



(1) When a debtor is in default under a security agreement, a secured party has the rights and remedies provided in this part and except as limited by subsection (3) those provided in the security agreement. He may reduce his claim to judgment, foreclose, or otherwise enforce the security interest by any available judicial procedure. If the collateral is documents the secured party may proceed either as to the documents or as to the goods covered by the documents. A secured party in possession has the rights, remedies, and duties provided in Section 36-9-207. The rights and remedies referred to in this subsection are cumulative.

(2) After default, the debtor has the rights and remedies provided in this part, those provided in the security agreement, and those provided in Section 36-9-207.

(3) To the extent that they give rights to the debtor and impose duties on the secured party, the rules stated in the subsections referred to below may not be waived or varied except as provided with respect to compulsory, disposition of collateral (subsection (3) of Section 36-9-504 and Section 36-9-505) and with respect to redemption of collateral (Section 36-9-506) but the parties may by agreement determine the standards by which the fulfillment of these rights and duties is to be measured if the standards are not manifestly unreasonable:

(a) subsection (2) of Section 36-9-502 and subsection (2) of Section 36-9-504 insofar as they require accounting for surplus proceeds of collateral;

(b) subsection (3) of Section 36-9-504 and subsection (1) of Section 36-9-505 which deal with disposition of collateral;

(c) subsection (2) of Section 36-9-505 which deals with acceptance of collateral as discharge of obligation;

(d) Section 36-9-506 which deals with redemption of collateral;

(e) subsection (1) of Section 36-9-507 which deals with the secured party's liability for failure to comply with this part.

(4) If the security agreement covers both real and personal property, the secured party may proceed under this part as to the personal property or he may proceed as to both the real and the personal property in accordance with his rights and remedies in respect of the real property in which case the provisions of this part do not apply.

(5) When a secured party has reduced his claim to judgment the lien of any levy which may be made upon his collateral by virtue of any execution based upon the judgment shall relate back to the date of the perfection of the security interest in the collateral. A judicial sale, pursuant to the execution, is a foreclosure of the security interest by judicial procedure within the meaning of this section, and the secured party may purchase at the sale and thereafter hold the collateral free of any other requirements of this chapter.

SECTION 36-9-502. Collection rights of secured party.



(1) When so agreed and in any event on default the secured party is entitled to notify an account debtor or the obligor on an instrument to make payment to him whether or not the assignor was theretofore making collections on the collateral, and also to take control of any proceeds to which he is entitled under Section 36-9-306.

(2) A secured party who by agreement is entitled to charge back uncollected collateral or otherwise to full or limited recourse against the debtor and who undertakes to collect from the account debtors or obligors must proceed in a commercially reasonable manner and may deduct his reasonable expenses of realization from the collections. If the security agreement secures an indebtedness, the secured party must account to the debtor for any surplus, and unless otherwise agreed, the debtor is liable for any deficiency. But, if the underlying transaction was a sale of accounts or chattel paper, the debtor is entitled to any surplus or is liable for any deficiency only if the security agreement so provides.

SECTION 36-9-503. Secured party's right to take possession after default.



Unless otherwise agreed a secured party has on default the right to take possession of the collateral. In taking possession a secured party may proceed without judicial process if this can be done without breach of the peace or may proceed by action. If the security agreement so provides the secured party may require the debtor to assemble the collateral and make it available to the secured party at a place to be designated by the secured party which is reasonably convenient to both parties. Without removal a secured party may render equipment unusable and may dispose of collateral on the debtor's premises under Section 36-9-504.

SECTION 36-9-504. Secured party's right to dispose of collateral after default; effect of disposition.



(1) A secured party after default may sell, lease, or otherwise dispose of any or all of the collateral in its then condition or following any commercially reasonable preparation or processing. Any sale of goods is subject to the Chapter on Sales (Chapter 2). The proceeds of disposition must be applied in the order following to:

(a) the reasonable expenses of retaking, holding, preparing for sale or lease, selling, leasing, and the like and, to the extent provided for in the agreement and not prohibited by law, the reasonable attorneys' fees and legal expenses incurred by the secured party;

(b) the satisfaction of indebtedness secured by the security interest under which the disposition is made;

(c) the satisfaction of indebtedness secured by any subordinate security interest in the collateral if written notification of demand therefor is received before distribution of the proceeds is completed. If requested by the secured party, the holder of a subordinate security interest must seasonably furnish reasonable proof of his interest, and unless he does so, the secured party need not comply with his demand.

(2) If the security interest secures an indebtedness, the secured party shall account to the debtor for any surplus, and, unless otherwise agreed, the debtor is liable for any deficiency. If the underlying transaction was a sale of accounts or chattel paper, the debtor is entitled to any surplus or is liable for any deficiency only if the security agreement so provides.

(3) Disposition of the collateral may be by public or private proceedings and may be made by way of one or more contracts. Sale or other disposition may be as a unit or in parcels and at any time and place and on any terms but every aspect of the disposition including the method, manner, time, place, and terms must be commercially reasonable. Unless collateral is perishable or threatens to decline speedily in value or is of a type customarily sold on a recognized market, reasonable notification of the time and place of any public sale or reasonable notification of the time after which any private sale or other intended disposition is to be made must be sent by the secured party to the debtor, if he has not signed after default a statement renouncing or modifying his right to notification of sale. In the case of consumer goods no other notification need be sent. In other cases notification must be sent to any other secured party from whom the secured party has received (before sending his notification to the debtor or before the debtor's renunciation of his rights) written notice of a claim of an interest in the collateral. The secured party may buy at any public sale, and if the collateral is of a type customarily sold in a recognized market or is of a type which is the subject of widely distributed standard price quotations he may buy at private sale.

(4) When collateral is disposed of by a secured party after default, the disposition transfers to a purchaser for value all of the debtor's rights in the collateral, discharges the security interest under which it is made and any security interest or lien subordinate thereto. The purchaser takes free of all of these rights and interests even though the secured party fails to comply with the requirements of this part or of any judicial proceedings:

(a) in the case of a public sale, if the purchaser has no knowledge of any defects in the sale and if he does not buy in collusion with the secured party, other bidders, or the person conducting the sale; or

(b) in any other case, if the purchaser acts in good faith.

(5) A person who is liable to a secured party under a guaranty, indorsement, repurchase agreement, or the like and who receives a transfer of collateral from the secured party or is subrogated to his rights has thereafter the rights and duties of the secured party. This transfer of collateral is not a sale or disposition of the collateral under this chapter.

SECTION 36-9-505. Compulsory disposition of collateral; acceptance of the collateral as discharge of obligation.



(1) If the debtor has paid sixty percent of the cash price in the case of a purchase money security interest in consumer goods or sixty percent of the loan in the case of another security interest in consumer goods and has not signed after default a statement renouncing or modifying his rights under this part a secured party who has taken possession of collateral shall dispose of it under Section 36-9-504, and if he fails to do so within ninety days after he takes possession the debtor at his option may recover in conversion or under Section 36-9-507(1) on secured party's liability.

(2) In any other case involving consumer goods or any other collateral a secured party in possession may, after default, propose to retain the collateral in satisfaction of the obligation. Written notice of this proposal must be sent to the debtor if he has not signed after default a statement renouncing or modifying his rights under this subsection. In the case of consumer goods no other notice need be given. In other cases notice must be sent to any other secured party from whom the secured party has received (before sending his notice to the debtor or before the debtor's renunciation of his rights) written notice of a claim of an interest in the collateral. If the secured party receives objection in writing from a person entitled to receive notification within twenty-one days after the notice was sent, the secured party shall dispose of the collateral under Section 36-9-504. In the absence of a written objection the secured party may retain the collateral in satisfaction of the debtor's obligation.

SECTION 36-9-506. Debtor's right to redeem collateral.



At any time before the secured party has disposed of collateral or entered into a contract for its disposition under Section 36-9-504 or before the obligation has been discharged under Section 36-9-505(2) the debtor or any other secured party may unless otherwise agreed in writing after default redeem the collateral by tendering fulfillment of all obligations secured by the collateral as well as the expenses reasonably incurred by the secured party in retaking, holding, and preparing the collateral for disposition, in arranging for the sale, and to the extent provided in the agreement and not prohibited by law, his reasonable attorneys' fees and legal expenses.

SECTION 36-9-507. Secured party's liability for failure to comply with this part.



(1) If it is established that the secured party is not proceeding in accordance with the provisions of this part disposition may be ordered or restrained on appropriate terms and conditions. If the disposition has occurred the debtor or any person entitled to notification or whose security interest has been made known to the secured party prior to the disposition has a right to recover from the secured party any loss caused by a failure to comply with the provisions of this part. If the collateral is consumer goods, the debtor has a right to recover in any event an amount not less than the credit service charge plus ten percent of the principal amount of the debt or the time price differential plus ten percent of the cash price.

(2) The fact that a better price could have been obtained by a sale at a different time or in a different method from that selected by the secured party is not of itself sufficient to establish that the sale was not made in a commercially reasonable manner. If the secured party either sells the collateral in the usual manner in any recognized market for the collateral or if he sells at the price current in the market at the time of his sale or if he has otherwise sold in conformity with reasonable commercial practices among dealers in the type of property sold he has sold in a commercially reasonable manner. The principles stated in the two preceding sentences with respect to sales also apply as may be appropriate to other types of disposition. A disposition which has been approved in any judicial proceeding or by any bona fide creditors' committee or representative of creditors is conclusively considered to be commercially reasonable, but this sentence does not indicate that approval must be obtained in any case nor does it indicate that any disposition not so approved is not commercially reasonable.

PART 6. PUBLIC SALE PROCEDURES

SECTION 36-9-601. Disposition of collateral by public sale.

Disposition of collateral by public proceedings as permitted by Section 36-9-504 may be made in accordance with the provisions of this part. The provisions of this part are not mandatory for disposition by public proceedings, but any disposition of the collateral by public sale wherein the secured party has substantially complied with the procedures provided in this part is conclusively considered to be commercially reasonable in all aspects.

SECTION 36-9-602. Contents of notice of sale.

The notice of sale shall substantially:

(a) Refer to the security agreement pursuant to which the sale is held;

(b) Designate the date, hour, and place of sale consistent with the provisions of the security agreement and the provisions found in this part;

(c) Describe personal property to be sold substantially as it is described in the security agreement pursuant to which the power of sale is being exercised and may add a further description as will acquaint bidders with the nature of the property;

(d) State the terms of the sale provided by the security agreement pursuant to which the sale is held, including the amount of the cash deposit, if any, to be made by the highest bidder at the sale;

(e) Include any other provisions required by the security agreement to be included therein;

(f) State that the property will be sold subject to taxes and special assessments if it is to be so sold.

SECTION 36-9-603. Posting and mailing notice of sale.

(1) In each public sale conducted, the notice of sale must be posted on a bulletin board provided for the posting of legal notices, in the courthouse, in the county in which the sale is to be held, for at least five days immediately preceding the sale.

(2) In addition to the posting of notice required by subsection (1), the secured party or other party holding a public sale shall, at least five days before the date of sale, mail by registered or certified mail a copy of the notice of sale to each debtor obligated under the security agreement:

(a) At the actual address of the debtors, if known to the secured party, or

(b) At the address, if any, furnished the secured party, in writing, by the debtors, or otherwise at the last known address.

(3) In the case of consumer goods, no other notification need be sent. In other cases, in addition to mailing a copy of the notice of sale to each debtor, the secured party shall also mail a copy of such notice by registered or certified mail to any other secured party from whom the secured party has received (before sending the notice of sale to the debtor) written notice of a claim of an interest in the collateral.

(4) The time for the posting of the notice of sale and the mailing of the notice required by this section shall be computed so as to exclude the first day of posting and mailing and to include the day on which the sale is to occur.

SECTION 36-9-604. Exception as to perishable property.

If, in the opinion of a secured party about to conduct a public sale of personal property, the property is perishable because subject to rapid deterioration or threatens to decline speedily in value, he may report this fact, together with a description of the property to the clerk of court of the county in which the property is to be sold, and apply for authority to sell the property at an earlier date than is provided in this chapter. Upon the clerk's determination that the property is perishable or speedily depreciating property, he shall order a sale of the property to be held at a time and place and upon notice, if any, as he considers advisable.

SECTION 36-9-605. Postponement of public sale.

(1) Any person exercising a power of sale or conducting a public sale may postpone the sale to a day certain not later than six days, exclusive of Sunday, after the original date for the sale:

(a) When there are no bidders; or

(b) When, in his judgment, the number of prospective bidders at the sale is substantially decreased by inclement weather or by any casualty; or

(c) When there are so many other sales advertised to be held at the same time and place as to make it inexpedient and impracticable in his judgment to hold the sale on that day; or

(d) When he is unable to hold the sale because of illness or for other good reason; or

(e) When other good cause exists.

(2) Upon postponement of a public sale, the person exercising the power of sale shall personally, or through his agent or attorney:

(a) At the time and place advertised for the sale, publicly announce the postponement of the sale;

(b) On the same day, attach to or enter on the original notice of sale or a copy of the original notice of sale, posted on the bulletin board provided for this purpose, as provided by Section 36-9-603, a notice of the postponement.

(3) The posted notice of postponement shall:

(a) State that the public sale is postponed;

(b) State the hour and date to which the public sale is postponed;

(c) Substantially state the reason for the postponement;

(d) Be signed by the person authorized to hold the public sale, or by his agent or attorney.

(4) If a public sale is not held at the time fixed for the public sale and is not postponed as provided by this section, or if a postponed sale is not held at the time fixed for the postponed sale, the person authorized to hold the public sale may readvertise the property in the same manner as he was required to advertise the sale which was not held and may hold a public sale at a later date as is fixed in the new notice of sale.

SECTION 36-9-606. Procedure upon dissolution of order restraining or enjoining sale.

(1) When, before the date fixed for a sale, a judge of competent jurisdiction dissolves an order restraining or enjoining the sale, he may, if the required notice of sale has been given, as provided in Section 36-9-603, provide by order that the public sale must be held without additional notice at the time and place originally fixed for the public sale; or he may, in his discretion, make an order with respect to the public sale as provided in subsection (2).

(2) When, after the date fixed for a public sale, a judge of competent jurisdiction dissolves an order restraining or enjoining the sale, he shall, by order, fix the time and place for the sale to be held upon notice to be given and in a manner and for a length of time as he considers advisable.

SECTION 36-9-607. Disposition of proceeds of sale.

The proceeds of any sale or other disposition of the collateral must be applied by the person making the sale in the manner prescribed by Section 36-9-504 and by other applicable provisions of law.





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