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Title 29 - Mortgages and Other Liens
MORTGAGES AND DEEDS OF TRUST GENERALLY
VALIDITY AND GENERAL RIGHTS
Rights and title of mortgagor and mortgagee.
No mortgagee shall be entitled to maintain any possessory action for the real estate mortgaged, even after the time allotted for the payment of the money secured by mortgage is elapsed, but the mortgagor shall be deemed the owner of the land and the mortgagee as owner of the money lent or due and the mortgagee shall be entitled to recover satisfaction for such money out of the land by foreclosure and sale according to law. But notwithstanding the foregoing provision all releases of the equity of redemption shall be binding and effectual in law.
SECTION 29-3-10 recognizes that a mortgagee has an interest in the mortgaged property.
State v. Leach (S.C. 1984) 282 S.C. 178, 318 S.E.2d 267.
Effect of 1879 amendment. Sims v. Steadman (S.C. 1902) 62 S.C. 300, 40 S.E. 677.
2. Historical background
Before the act of 1791 legal title passed to mortgagee upon defeasance, and he could maintain action for the land, Verree v Verree (1807) SCL 211. State v Laval (1827) 15 SCL 336. Stoney v Shultz (1834) 10 SC Eq 465. Drayton v Marshall (1839) 14 SC Eq 373. Mitchell v Bogan (1897) 45 SCL 686. Laffan v Kennedy (1868) 49 SCL 246. Reeder & Davis v Dargan (1881) 15 SC 175. Durand v Isaacks (1826) 15 SCL 54. Stoney v Shultz (1834) 10 SC Eq 465. Mitchell v Bogan (1897) 45 SCL 686. Laffan v Kennedy (1868) 49 SCL 246. Williams v Beard (1870) 1 SC 309. Warren v Raymond (1879) 12 SC 9.
3. Nature and effect of mortgage
Mortgage does not convey any estate, even after time for redemption has passed. Thayer v Cramer (1826) 6 SC Eq 395. Lowndes v Chisholm (1827) 7 SC Eq 455. Simons v Bryce (1878) 10 SC 354. Warren v Raymond (1879) 12 SC 9. Annely v De Saussure (1879) 12 SC 488. Reeder & Davis v Dargan (1881) 15 SC 175. Warren v Raymond (1882) 17 SC 163. Hendrix v Seaborn (1886) 25 SC 481. Johnson v Johnson (1887) 27 SC 309, 3 SE 606. Seignious v Pate (1890) 32 SC 134, 10 SE 880. Hardin v Hardin (1891) 34 SC 77, 12 SE 936. Glover v United States (1896) 164 US 294, 41 L Ed 440, 17 S Ct 95.
Under this section [Code 1962 Section 45-51] a mortgage on real property is merely a pledge, the mortgagee having a mere lien. Citizens' & Southern Bank of South Carolina v. Pine Forest Inn Co., 1929, 31 F.2d 301.
Mortgage represents security for obligation, not full payment thereof; it is not implicit in taking of mortgage that creditor is to look only to property for satisfaction of debt. Perpetual Bldg. and Loan Ass'n of Anderson v. Braun (S.C. 1978) 270 S.C. 338, 242 S.E.2d 407.
Chattel mortgage does not vest title to mortgaged property in mortgagee at time of execution of mortgage, though this section [Code 1962 Section 45-51] makes no reference to personal property. General Motors Acceptance Corp. v. Hanahan (S.C. 1928) 146 S.C. 257, 143 S.E. 820.
Deed of conveyance and separate agreement to reconvey constitute a mortgage. Francis v. Francis (S.C. 1907) 78 S.C. 178, 58 S.E. 804.
Under this section [Code 1962 Section 45-51] a mortgage is not a conveyance. Burkett v. Whittemore (S.C. 1892) 36 S.C. 428, 15 S.E. 616.
4. Application in particular cases
Release of the equity of redemption operates under this section [Code 1962 $ 45-51] as a conveyance of land. Mitchell v Bogan (1897) 45 SCL 686. Simons v Bryce (1878) 10 SC 354. Navassa Guano Co. v Richardson (1887) 26 SC 401, 2 SE 307. Tant v Guess (1892) 37 SC 489, 16 SE 472.
Mortgagee has equitable interest which should be protected in partition suit by making him a party thereto. Ex parte Johnson (S.C. 1928) 147 S.C. 259, 145 S.E. 113.
A decree in a foreclosure action that plaintiff have judgment against defendants for the property subject to this action was held merely to exclude the idea that a personal judgment was intended, and not to give plaintiff judgment for possession of the land but to provide for satisfaction by sale pursuant to this section [Code 1962 Section 45-51]. Citizens' Bank v. Davis (S.C. 1923) 126 S.C. 175, 119 S.E. 580.
Where there are no inequitable circumstances after maturity of a mortgage, the mortgagor has the power to make an absolute conveyance to the mortgagee in satisfaction of the debt, especially in view of this section [Code 1962 $ 45-51] recognizing the validity of a release of the equity of redemption. Brockington v. Lynch (S.C. 1922) 119 S.C. 273, 112 S.E. 94.
Mortgagee in possession is entitled to hold the property for subsequent debts, where deed was intended to secure subsequent indebtedness. Cox v. Enterprise Bank (S.C. 1920) 115 S.C. 191, 104 S.E. 693.
Under this section [Code 1962 Section 45-51] the legal title upon the execution of a mortgage of real estate remains in the mortgagor, and, when the mortgagor dies leaving his wife and children in possession, the title descends to them and the premises cannot be sold by the assignee of the mortgage under a power of sale contained in the mortgage without making the mortgagor's heirs at law parties to the proceedings. Johnson v. Johnson (S.C. 1887) 27 S.C. 309, 3 S.E. 606, 13 Am.St.Rep. 636.
5. --Where mortgagee holds adversely to mortgagor's title
Legal relationship does not prevent mortgagee in possession from holding adversely to mortgagor's legal title, nor preclude him from perfecting legal title in himself by adverse possession in view of this section [Code 1962 $ 45-51]. Frady v. Ivester (S.C. 1924) 129 S.C. 536, 125 S.E. 134.
Where mortgagors executed a deed to the mortgagee providing that it should be a mortgage until a specified date, and should then become absolute if the mortgagors had failed to pay, and the mortgagee, after such date, without other consideration than the mortgagors' inability to pay, took possession, the relation of mortgagor and mortgagee continued and the law imposed the duties of a trustee upon the mortgagee, and she could not hold adversely to the rights of the mortgagors until she either surrendered possession or gave notice of an adverse possession. Frady v. Ivester (S.C. 1921) 118 S.C. 195, 110 S.E. 135.
Prior mortgages may be redeemed by second mortgagees.
If it so happen there be more than one mortgage at the same time by any person to any person or persons of the same lands and tenements, the several mortgagees who have not registered or recorded their mortgages, their heirs, executors, administrators or assigns, may redeem any former mortgage registered upon payment of the principal debt, interest and cost of suit to the prior mortgagee, his heirs, executors, administrators or assigns.
Mortgagee may pay taxes.
Any person holding a lien by way of, or an interest in the nature of, a mortgage upon any property, the subject of taxation, upon which the mortgagor shall have failed to pay the tax or upon which there may exist a lien for taxes on any other property of the mortgagor, may at any time before the sale thereof for delinquent taxes, as provided in Title 12, pay the tax on all the property of the mortgagor, with any costs, penalties or assessments which may have accrued thereon, and thereupon he shall be entitled, as against the mortgagor, his representatives, privies or assigns, to include the amount so paid, and all interest thereafter accruing thereon, in the debt secured by the mortgage. And if a mortgagee pay such taxes he shall have a first lien on the property subject to such tax to the extent of the taxes so paid with interest from the date of payment.
Priority of certain advancements by mortgage.
The holder of any mortgage of real property, when the mortgage contains provisions authorizing advancements thereunder for taxes, insurance premiums, public assessments and repairs, may make such advancements and, when made, they shall be secured by the mortgage and have the same rank and priority as the principal debt thereby secured and bear interest from the date of such advancements, as provided in the mortgage. Advancements made for taxes by any such mortgage holder shall be a first lien on the mortgaged real property to the extent of the taxes so paid with interest from the date of payment, regardless of the rank and priority of the mortgage under which such taxes are advanced.
Mortgage for future advances; mortgage or lien on property held by gas or electric utility or electric cooperative.
(A) Any mortgage or other instrument conveying an interest in or creating a lien on any real estate, securing existing indebtedness or future advances to be made, regardless of whether the advances are to be made at the option of the lender, are valid from the day and hour when recorded so as to affect the rights of subsequent creditors, whether lien creditors or simple contract creditors, or purchasers for valuable consideration without notice to the same extent as if the advances were made as of the date of the execution of the mortgage or other instrument for the total amount of advances made thereunder, together with all other indebtedness and sums secured thereby, the total amount of existing indebtedness and future advances outstanding at any one time may not exceed the maximum principal amount stated therein, plus interest thereon, attorney's fees and court costs. It is not necessary that the mortgage state as part of the maximum principal the amount of any deferred, accrued, or capitalized interest or discount of any nature or kind, whether the rate of interest or discount is fixed or variable pursuant to an alternative mortgage loan transaction as defined in Section 37-1-301(5), and the lien of the mortgage as to all that interest or discount shall have the same priority as the principal; provided, however, that the recorded mortgage discloses that interest or discount will be deferred, accrued, or capitalized. However, the lien of a person who has furnished labor, services, or material in connection with the construction of improvements to real property is superior to the lien of a recorded mortgage as to disbursements made after filing of the notice of the mechanic's lien required by Section 29-5-90 and service of the notice on all prior recorded mortgage holders. Service of the notice on prior recorded mortgage holders must be made pursuant to Rule 4 of the South Carolina Rules of Civil Procedure. The priority of the mechanic's lien extends only to the mortgage disbursements made after the filing of the lien and service of the notice on all prior recorded mortgage holders.
(B) Any mortgage or other instrument which by its terms creates an interest in or a lien upon any real property interest held by a gas or electrical utility or electric cooperative, securing existing indebtedness or indebtedness to be incurred in the future, is valid from the day and hour when recorded. It affects and is prior to the rights of all creditors and purchasers for valuable consideration without notice and all liens except liens of record prior to recordation of the mortgage, regardless of whether there is an actual debt outstanding at the time of recordation of the mortgage, to the same extent as if the future indebtedness were incurred as of the date of the execution of the mortgage or other instrument for the total amount of indebtedness thereafter incurred, together with all other indebtedness and sums secured thereby. However, the total amount of existing indebtedness and future indebtedness at any one time may not exceed the maximum principal amount stated therein plus interest thereon, attorney's fees and court costs, and the mortgage or other instrument must contemplate that future indebtedness may be incurred. The mortgage or other instrument shall remain a valid lien and effective as record notice thereof until satisfied or released of record even though there are periods during which no indebtedness is outstanding thereunder.
Notwithstanding the above provisions, the lien of a person who has furnished labor, services, or materials in connection with the construction of improvements to real property is superior to the lien of a recorded mortgage as to indebtedness actually incurred after filing of the notice of the mechanic's lien required by Section 29-3-90 and service of the notice on all prior recorded mortgage holders. Service of the notice on prior recorded mortgage holders must be made pursuant to Rule 4 of the South Carolina Rules of Civil Procedure. The priority of the mechanic's lien extends only to the mortgage indebtedness actually incurred after the filing of the lien and service of the notice on all prior recorded mortgage holders.
Limitation on requirement of casualty insurance by mortgagee.
A bank, savings and loan association, financial institution, mortgage company, or any public or private mortgagee doing business in this State, when making a mortgage loan, may not require, as a condition or term of the mortgage, that the mortgagor purchase casualty insurance on property which is the subject of the mortgage in an amount in excess of the replacement cost of the buildings or appurtenances on the mortgaged premises.
Effect of recording of mortgage or other instrument by gas or electric utility or electric cooperative; after-acquired property; notice.
Any mortgage or other instrument executed by a gas or electrical utility or electric cooperative transacting business in this State which by its terms creates a lien upon any real property interest then owned or thereafter acquired and which is recorded as a mortgage of real property in any county in which the property is located or is to be located shall have the same force and effect as if the mortgage or other instrument were also recorded or filed in the proper office in the county as a mortgage of personal property. Recordation of the mortgage or other instrument shall cause the lien thereof to attach to all after-acquired property of the mortgagor of the nature therein described immediately upon the acquisition thereof by mortgagor and the lien is superior to all claims of creditors of the mortgagor and purchasers of these real property interests, except prior liens of record, affecting the property. The gas or electrical utility or electric cooperative shall file a notice in every county in which the utility intends to claim the benefit of this provision of law and referencing the book and page number of the mortgage or other instrument which is entitled to the benefit of this provision of law. Thereafter, there shall be no further document necessary to create or give notice of the lien upon the real property interest thereafter acquired by the gas or electrical utility or electric cooperative.
Property of gas or electric utility or electric cooperative may be described in general terms.
(A) Any real property or real property interests, including, without limitation, easements and rights-of-way, of any gas or electrical utility or electric cooperative which are intended to be subjected to the lien of any mortgage, indenture, or other type of real property security agreement, may be described in general terms and are operative and effective without the necessity of description of metes and bounds, references to plats, or other methods of description as commonly utilized in mortgages of this State. Without limiting or excluding other types of general descriptions which may be utilized for these purposes, it is sufficient if the property or property interests are described in the following words or their substantial equivalent:
All real property and real property interests of __________, including, without limitation, lands, buildings, fixtures, easements, rights-of-way, leaseholds, and other interests, situate, lying, and being in any one or more of the counties of the State of South Carolina, as the same may be now or hereafter constituted or delineated, and whether now owned or acquired hereafter while the lien of this mortgage remains open and unsatisfied of record, SAVING, EXCEPTING, AND EXCLUDING THEREFROM THE FOLLOWING: __________.
(B) The provisions of Section 30-5-35 relating to derivation clauses in deeds and mortgages do not apply to mortgages granted by gas or electrical utilities or electric cooperatives.
(C) Without limiting the foregoing, it is also sufficient and effective to subject real property and real property interests of any gas or electrical utility or electric cooperative to the lien of any prior mortgage, indenture, or other similar real property security agreement executed by the utility by reference to the prior mortgage or other instrument and the inclusion of words in the deed or conveyance to the effect that the real property or real property interests will be upon acquisition by the grantee immediately and automatically subjected to the lien of the prior mortgage or other instrument.
(D) Without limiting the effect of subsections (A), (B), and (C) above, it is also operative and effective to describe the real property or real property interests of any gas or electrical utility or electric cooperative being subjected to the lien of a mortgage, indenture, or other real property security agreement by referencing the property description or descriptions contained in any prior mortgage or other real property financing agreement executed by the utility, even though that prior mortgage or other instrument may be satisfied of record and notwithstanding the fact that the prior mortgage or other instrument encumbers real property or real property interests which have been subjected thereto by reference to a description contained in another instrument.
Validity of certain assignments of rents, issues, or profits.
(A) For purposes of this section the following definitions apply:
(1) "Rents, issues, or profits" means all amounts payable by or on behalf of any lessee, tenant, or other person having a possessory interest in real property on account of or pursuant to any written or oral lease or other instrument evidencing a possessory interest in real property or pursuant to any form of tenancy implied by law, and all amounts payable by or on behalf of any licensee or permittee or other person occupying or using real property under license or permission from the owner or person entitled to possession. The term shall not include farm products, timber, the proceeds from the sale of farm products or timber, or the proceeds from the recovery or severance of any mineral deposits located on or under real property.
(2) "Assignment of leases, rents, issues, or profits" means every document assigning, transferring, pledging, mortgaging, or conveying an interest in leases, licenses to real property, and rents, issues, or profits arising from real property, whether set forth in a separate instrument or contained in a mortgage, conditional sales contract, or other deed or instrument of conveyance.
(3) "Collateral assignment" means any assignment of leases, rents, issues, or profits made and delivered in connection with the grant of any mortgage, or the execution of any conditional sales contract or in connection with any extension of credit made against the security of any interest in real property, where the assignor retains the right to collect or to apply the lease revenues, rents, issues, or profits after assignment and prior to default.
(B) The recording of a written document containing an assignment of leases, rents, issues, or profits arising from real property is valid and enforceable from the time of recording to pass the interest granted, pledged assigned, or transferred as against the assignor, and is perfected from the time of recording against subsequent assignees, lien creditors, and purchasers for a valuable consideration from the assignor.
(C) Where an assignment of leases, rents, issues, or profits is a collateral assignment, after a default under the mortgage, conditional sales contract, or evidence of indebtedness which the assignment secures, the assignee is thereafter entitled, but not required, to collect and receive any accrued and unpaid or subsequently accruing leave revenues, rents, issues, or profits subject to the assignment, without need for the appointment of a receiver, any act to take possession of the property, or any further demand on the assignor. Unless otherwise agreed, after default the assignee is entitled to notify the tenant or other obligor to make payment to him and is also entitled to take control of any proceeds to which he may be entitled. The assignee must proceed in a commercially reasonable manner and may deduct his reasonable expenses of realization from the collections.
(D) This section shall not exclude other methods of creating, perfecting, collecting, sequestering, or enforcing a security interest in rents, issues, or profits provided by the law of this State.
SATISFACTION AND RELEASE
Satisfaction shall be entered upon full payment.
Any holder of record of a mortgage who has received full payment or satisfaction or to whom a legal tender has been made of his debts, damages, costs, and charges secured by mortgage of real estate shall, at the request by certified mail or other form of delivery with a proof of delivery of the mortgagor or of his legal representative or any other person being a creditor of the debtor or a purchaser under him or having an interest in any estate bound by the mortgage and on tender of the fees of office for entering satisfaction, within three months after the certified mail, or other form of delivery, with a proof of delivery, request is made, enter satisfaction in the proper office on the mortgage which shall forever thereafter discharge and satisfy the mortgage.
Liability for failure to enter satisfaction.
Any holder of record of a mortgage having received such payment, satisfaction, or tender as aforesaid who shall not, by himself or his attorney, within three months after such certified mail, or other form of delivery, with a proof of delivery, request and tender of fees of office, repair to the proper office and enter satisfaction as aforesaid shall forfeit and pay to the person aggrieved a sum of money not exceeding one-half of the amount of the debt secured by the mortgage, or twenty-five thousand dollars, whichever is less, plus actual damages, costs, and attorney's fees in the discretion of the court, to be recovered by action in any court of competent jurisdiction within the State. And on judgment being rendered for the plaintiff in any such action, the presiding judge shall order satisfaction to be entered on the judgment or mortgage aforesaid by the clerk, register, or other proper officer whose duty it shall be, on receiving such order, to record it and to enter satisfaction accordingly.
Notwithstanding any limitations under Sections 37-2-202 and 37-3-202, the holder of record of the mortgage may charge a reasonable fee at the time of the satisfaction not to exceed twenty-five dollars to cover the cost of processing and recording the satisfaction or cancellation. If the mortgagor or his legal representative instructs the holder of record of the mortgage that the mortgagor will be responsible for filing the satisfaction, the holder of the mortgage shall mail or deliver the satisfied mortgage to the mortgagor or his legal representative with no satisfaction fee charged.
[1992 Act No. 453, Section 2] Repealed by 1999 Act No. 67, Section 4, eff June 11, 1999.
Methods of entering satisfaction.
Any mortgage, deed of trust, or other written instrument securing the payment of money and being a lien upon real property may be cancelled, discharged, and released by any of the following methods:
(a) The mortgagee or other person being the owner or holder of the mortgage, as appears by the record of the instrument or any assignment of the instrument, or the legal representative or attorney in fact, under a written instrument duly recorded, of the holder of the instrument, may exhibit the instrument to the officer or his deputy who has charge of the recording of the instrument and then in the presence of the officer or his deputy write across the face of the record of the instrument the words "The debt secured is paid in full and the lien of this instrument is satisfied", or words of like meaning and date the notation and sign it, the signature to be witnessed by the officer or his deputy;
(b) The satisfaction of the mortgage, deed of trust, or other instrument securing the payment of money and being a lien upon real property may be written upon or attached to the original instrument and executed by any person above named in the presence of one or more witnesses, in which event the satisfaction must be recorded across the face of the record of the original instrument; or
(c) In case the original mortgage, deed of trust, or other instrument securing the payment of money and being a lien upon real property has been lost or destroyed it may be satisfied, either by the owner and holder of the instrument in person or his personal representative or duly authorized attorney in fact, by an instrument in writing duly executed in the presence of two witnesses and probated, and in addition the person executing the satisfaction shall make an affidavit that he or the person he represents is at the time of the satisfaction a bona fide owner and holder of the mortgage, deed of trust, or other instrument securing the payment of money and being a lien upon real property and that has not been assigned, hypothecated, or otherwise disposed of. The affidavit must be recorded along with the satisfaction. The maker of any affidavit which is false is guilty of perjury and punished as by law provided for the punishment of perjury.
The signature of owner or holder of the instrument which has been lost or destroyed to which this section applies may be proved in the manner provided above or in the alternative may also be acknowledged by the owner or holder of the instrument in the presence of two witnesses, taken before an officer competent to administer an oath. The form of the acknowledgement must be as provided in Section 30-5-30(C) and if the acknowledgement is taken outside this State, it may be taken in the manner provided in Section 30-5-30(B).
(d) If the mortgage, deed of trust, or other written instrument was recorded in counterparts, the original of the instrument need not be presented and the satisfaction of it may be evidenced by an instrument of satisfaction, release, or discharge, which may be executed in counterparts, executed by the mortgagee, the holder of the mortgage, the legal representative, or the attorney-in-fact. Upon presentation of the instrument of satisfaction, release, or discharge, or a counterpart of it, the officer or his deputy having charge of the recording of instruments shall record the same.
(e) Any licensed attorney admitted to practice in the State of South Carolina who can provide proof of payment of funds by evidence of payment made payable to the mortgagee, holder of record, servicer, or other party entitled to receive payment may record, or cause to be recorded, an affidavit, in writing, duly executed in the presence of two witnesses and probated or acknowledged, which states that full payment of the balance or pay-off amount of the mortgage or other instrument securing the payment of money and being a lien upon real property has been made and that evidence of payment from the mortgagee, assignee, or servicer exists. This affidavit, duly recorded in the appropriate county, shall serve as notice of satisfaction of the mortgage and release of the lien upon the real property. The filing of the affidavit shall be sufficient to satisfy, release, or discharge the lien. Upon presentation of the instrument of satisfaction, release, or discharge, the officer or his deputy having charge of the recording of instruments shall record the same. This section may not be construed to require an attorney to record an affidavit pursuant to Section 29-3-330(e) or to create liability for failure to file such affidavit. The licensed attorney signing any such instrument which is false is guilty of perjury and subject to Section 16-9-10 and shall be liable for damages that any person may sustain as a result of the false affidavit, including reasonable attorney's fees incurred in connection with the recovery of such damages. The affidavit referred to in this item (e) shall be as follows:
"STATE OF SOUTH CAROLINA MORTGAGE LIEN
COUNTY OF ______________ SATISFACTION AFFIDAVIT
PURSUANT TO Section 29-3-330
OF SC CODE OF LAWS
FOR BOOK ____ PAGE _____
The undersigned on oath, being first duly sworn, hereby certifies as follows:
1. The undersigned is a licensed attorney admitted to practice in the State of South Carolina.
2. That with respect to the mortgage given by __________________ to ______________________ dated _______ and recorded in the offices of the Register of Deeds in book _________ at page ________:
a. [ ] That the undersigned was given written payoff information and made such payoff and is in possession of a canceled check to the mortgagee, holder of record, or representative servicer;
b. [ ] That the undersigned was given written payoff information and made such pay off by wire transfer or other electronic means to the mortgagee, holder of record, or representative servicer and has confirmation from the undersigned's bank of the transfer to the account provided by the mortgagee, holder of record, or representative servicer.
Under penalties of perjury, I declare that I have examined this affidavit this ___ day of ____ and, to the best of my knowledge and belief, it is true, correct, and complete.
(Witness) (Name--Please Print)
(Attorney's S.C. Bar number)
SUBSCRIBED AND SWORN TO ______________________________________
before me this __________ day (Street Address)
(City, State, Zip Code)
(Notary Public) ______________________________________
My commission expires: ______________________________________________________"
Upon presentation to the office of the Register of Deeds the Register is directed to record pursuant to Section 29-3-330(e) and mark the mortgage satisfied of record.
Certificate of satisfaction.
The recording officer or his deputy shall enter on the original mortgage, deed of trust, or other instrument securing the payment and being a lien upon real property when it is produced before him a certificate that a satisfaction has been entered of record and the date of the entry.
Entry of cancellation on indexes.
All registers of deeds and all clerks of court in counties in which the clerks are required to perform the duties of registers of deeds shall enter the word "canceled", together with the signature of the officer, upon the margin or across the indexes of real estate mortgages and chattel mortgages, respectively, when the real estate mortgage or chattel mortgage is duly canceled of record by the mortgagee or his assignee. The cancelation and signature must be entered in the margin opposite the names of the mortgagor and mortgagee, respectively, or across these names. A like cancelation, on the demand of the mortgagor or legal representative, must be made on mortgages heretofore canceled of record. In lieu of the above requirements, the register of deeds or clerk of court may insert an appropriate column on the same page in these indexes showing the book and page number, if any, of the satisfaction or cancelation. Upon failure of the register of deeds or clerk of court to comply with this section, in each instance he shall forfeit and pay to the mortgagor the sum of ten dollars to be recovered in any court of competent jurisdiction.
Any clerk or other officer wilfully violating this section, upon conviction, must be fined not more than one hundred dollars or imprisoned not more than thirty days, in the discretion of the court, and the solicitor of each circuit shall see that the law is complied with or shall prosecute violators.
Mortgagor may apply for rule to show cause against satisfaction.
Any person who is indebted by mortgage on real estate may apply to the presiding judge or any court of general sessions and common pleas to be held in the county in which the mortgage on real estate is recorded for a rule to show cause why satisfaction must not be entered thereon.
Proceedings where rule to show cause is issued.
Such judge shall grant such rule, returnable on a day to be fixed by him. The rule shall be served on the mortgagee, his legal representative or assignee or the attorney of any thereof, and if the party so served shall not attend to show cause or, attending, shall show insufficient cause and the judge shall be satisfied that the mortgage has been fully paid he shall order the proper officer to enter satisfaction on the mortgage.
Situation in which jury may decide whether mortgage has been paid.
If, on the return of the rule, it shall appear to the presiding judge that matters proper for the decision of a jury are involved in the case he may, at the request of either party, submit it to a jury, to be decided immediately in a summary manner. If the jury shall decide that the mortgage has been paid, satisfaction shall be ordered accordingly.
Alternative procedure for rule to show cause against satisfaction.
When the debt or any other obligation secured by any mortgage on real estate has been fully paid, released, satisfied, discharged, or extinguished or when the lien of any mortgage on real estate has been released, discharged, or extinguished and for any reason the mortgage or the record of the mortgage in the office of the register of deeds or clerk of court has not been satisfied and cancelled, the mortgagor or his legal representatives may, upon a verified petition against the mortgagee, his legal representatives, assignees, pledgees of record, and any other person having any right, title, or interest in or lien upon the mortgage, reciting the facts and circumstances in relation to the mortgage and the satisfaction, release, discharge, or extinguishment of the debt or obligation secured thereby or of the lien thereof, apply to the court of common pleas or any judge of the Court of Common Pleas in open court or at chambers for a rule to show cause why an order should not be granted directing that the mortgage or record of the mortgage be satisfied and cancelled of record.
Entry in index to lis pendens.
Upon the filing of the petition in the office of the clerk of the court of common pleas, the clerk shall immediately enter it in the index to lis pendens affecting real property and from the time of the filing the pendency of the action or special proceedings is constructive notice to an assignee, pledgee, purchaser, or encumbrancer of the mortgage, and every person whose purchase, encumbrance, assignment, pledge, or hypothecation is subsequently executed or subsequently recorded is considered a subsequent purchaser or encumbrancer and is bound by all proceedings taken after the filing of the petition to the same extent as if he were made a party to the action or special proceeding. The filing of the petition is of no avail unless it is followed by the first publication of the rule or by the personal service thereof on a respondent within sixty days after the filing.
Issuance of rule to show cause; service of rule.
Upon the filing of such petition, the court or judge thereof shall grant and issue a rule to show cause returnable on a day to be fixed by the court or judge. The rule and petition shall be served upon the mortgagee or his legal representatives or assignees and pledgees of record and every other party named as respondent in the petition.
Service by publication on certain parties.
If (a) the mortgagee or any of his pledgees or assignees or any other person having any right, title or interest in or lien upon the mortgage shall be dead at or before the time of the filing of the petition and no legal representatives have been appointed and qualified for such person, (b) any of such persons cannot be found within this State or (c) the mortgagee, assignee, pledgee or interested person is a domestic or foreign corporation which has been dissolved or has ceased to do business in this State and no officer or agent authorized to accept service of the petition and rule can be found in this State, the court or judge, upon proof of such facts by affidavit of the petitioner, shall grant an order for the publication of the rule to show cause, such publication to be made once a week for three consecutive weeks in some newspaper published in the county in which the mortgaged property or some part thereof is situate or, if there is no newspaper in such county, by posting a copy of the petition and rule to show cause upon the courthouse door of the county for a period of three weeks. Such constructive service shall be complete upon the expiration of twenty-one days from the time of the first publication or posting of the petition and rule to show cause.
Order to cancel mortgage or release lien upon failure to show sufficient cause.
If the parties so served with the petition and rule shall not attend to show cause or, attending, shall fail to show sufficient cause and the court or judge shall be satisfied that the debt or obligation secured by the mortgage has been fully paid, satisfied, discharged, released or extinguished or that the lien of the mortgage has been released, discharged or extinguished, the court or judge shall thereupon, by an appropriate order, direct the proper officer to satisfy and cancel the mortgage or the record thereof or to release the lien of the mortgage upon the record thereof, as the case may be.
Persons on whom satisfaction by order of court is binding.
Such satisfaction and cancellation of the mortgage or release of the lien thereof shall be effectual and binding upon the parties so served with the petition and rule and upon every assignee or pledgee of every parol or written assignment, pledge or hypothecation of such mortgage not named in and served with the petition and rule unless such pledge, hypothecation or assignment is duly recorded in the proper office at or before the time of the filing of the petition or the petitioner has actual notice or knowledge thereof.
Cumulative nature of foregoing sections.
Sections 29-3-390 to 29-3-440 shall not be taken or deemed to repeal any other laws relating to the subject matter thereof but shall be deemed and construed to be cumulative of other remedies.
Abatement of notice of lis pendens.
The court in which the action or special proceeding was commenced may, in its discretion and at any time after the action or special proceeding shall be settled, discontinued or abated as provided in Sections 15-5-180 and 15-5-190, on application of any person aggrieved and on good cause shown and on such notice as shall be directed or approved by the court, order the notice authorized by Section 29-3-400 to be cancelled of record by the clerk of the court of common pleas of any county in whose office it may have been indexed and such cancellation shall be made by an endorsement to that effect on the margin of the index of the record, which shall refer to the order for cancellation.
Release of portion of mortgaged premises.
Nothing provided in this title prevents the release of a portion of any mortgaged interest in real property from the lien of the mortgage by any instrument in writing duly executed in the presence of one or more witnesses and duly probated, the release to be executed by the owner or holder of the lien or his duly authorized representative as will appear by the record of the original instrument or of any assignment thereof. If the release is written upon or attached to the original mortgage no probate thereof is required.
Personal representatives of deceased mortgagor need not be party in foreclosure proceeding.
It shall not be necessary to make the personal representative of a deceased mortgagor a party to any foreclosure proceeding and no sale heretofore made under foreclosure proceedings to which the personal representative of a deceased mortgagor was not a party shall be invalid by reason of the absence of such personal representative.
Situation in which mortgagor need not be party in foreclosure proceeding.
It shall not be necessary to make a mortgagor who has conveyed to another the mortgaged premises a party to any action for foreclosure when no judgment for a deficiency is demanded.
Debt secured must be established before sale by mortgagee.
No sale under or by virtue of any mortgage or other instrument in writing intended as security for a debt, conferring a power upon the mortgagee or creditor to sell the mortgaged or pledged property while such power remains of force or has not been revoked by the death of the person executing such mortgage or instrument, shall be valid to pass the title of the land mortgaged unless the debt for which the security is given shall be first established by the judgment of some court of competent jurisdiction or unless the amount of the debt be consented to in writing by the debtor subsequently to the maturity of the debt, such consent in writing to be recorded in the office of the register of deeds or clerk of the court where the mortgage or other instrument in writing given to secure such debt is or ought to be recorded. But if the mortgagor be dead it shall not be necessary in any foreclosure proceeding first to establish the debt by the judgment of some court of competent jurisdiction in order to obtain a decree of foreclosure and sale.
Time within which mortgagor's consent to amount of debt is valid to allow sale by mortgagee.
The consent of the mortgagor to the amount of the debt shall bear date not more than twelve months prior to any sale under any power contained in any such mortgage as referred to in Section 29-3-630.
Court may render judgment and order sale at same time.
The court may also render judgment against the parties liable for the payment of the debt secured by the mortgage and direct at the same time the sale of the mortgaged premises. Such judgment so rendered may be entered and docketed in the clerk's office in the same manner as other judgments. Upon the sale of the mortgaged premises the officer making the sale under the order of the court shall credit upon the judgment so rendered for the debt the amount paid to the plaintiff from the proceeds of the sale.
In actions to foreclose mortgages the court may adjudge and direct the payment by the mortgagor of any residue of the mortgage debt that may remain unsatisfied after a sale of the mortgaged premises in cases in which the mortgagor shall be personally liable for the debt secured by such mortgage and if the mortgage debt be secured by the covenant or obligation of any person other than the mortgagor the plaintiff may make such person a party to the action and the court may adjudge payment of the residue of such debt remaining unsatisfied after a sale of the mortgaged premises against such other person and may enforce such judgment as in other cases.
Deficiency shall not be extinguished on purchase by mortgagee.
When any sale of land is made under the circumstances under which such a sale is permitted by Section 29-3-630 any balance of the mortgage debt over the purchase price of the land at such sale shall not be extinguished by reason of the mortgagee or his assigns becoming the purchaser at such sale, whether the mortgage contained a provision to that effect or not.
Application for order of appraisal.
(A) In any real estate foreclosure proceeding a defendant against whom a personal judgment is taken or asked, whether he has theretofore appeared in the action or not, may within thirty days after the sale of the mortgaged property apply by verified petition to the clerk of court in which the decree or order of sale was taken for an order of appraisal.
(B) Except in any real estate foreclosure proceeding relating to a dwelling place, as defined in Section 12-37-250, or to a consumer credit transaction, as defined in Section 37-1-301(11), a defendant against whom a personal judgment may be taken on a real estate secured transaction may waive the appraisal rights as provided by this section if the debtors, makers, borrowers, and/or guarantors are notified in writing before the transaction that a waiver of appraisal rights will be required and upon signing a statement during the transaction similar to the following:
"The laws of South Carolina provide that in any real estate foreclosure proceeding a defendant against whom a personal judgment is taken or asked may within thirty days after the sale of the mortgaged property apply to the court for an order of appraisal. The statutory appraisal value as approved by the court would be substituted for the high bid and may decrease the amount of any deficiency owing in connection with the transaction. THE UNDERSIGNED HEREBY WAIVES AND RELINQUISHES THE STATUTORY APPRAISAL RIGHTS WHICH MEANS THE HIGH BID AT THE JUDICIAL FORECLOSURE SALE WILL BE APPLIED TO THE DEBT REGARDLESS OF ANY APPRAISED VALUE OF THE MORTGAGED PROPERTY."
This waiver may be in any document relating to the transaction; however, the required language must be on a page containing the signature of the person making the waiver and the capitalized sentence must be underlined, in capital letters, or disclosed in another prominent manner.
Time for filing for appraisal may be extended only by written consent.
The time provided by Section 29-3-680 for filing the petition required thereunder shall not be enlarged or extended except by a written consent of the judgment creditor.
Order for appraisal.
Upon the filing of such petition and deposit with the clerk of a sufficient sum to pay the costs of the subsequent proceedings he shall issue an order that the property be appraised at its true value as of the date of sale by three disinterested individuals who must be state-certified general real estate appraisers as defined in Section 40-60-20(20), state-certified residential real estate appraisers as defined by Section 40-60-20(21), or state-licensed real estate appraisers as defined by Section 40-60-20(22), who shall not be parties to the action or connected in business with or related by blood or marriage within the sixth degree to any such party.
Appointment of appraisers.
In his petition the petitioner shall designate one appraiser and within ten days after service of a copy of the order upon the judgment creditor or his attorney of record he shall designate to the clerk another appraiser, whereupon the court having jurisdiction of the action or any judge thereof shall appoint a third, and the said court or judge shall make the appointment herein provided for the judgment creditor if he does not avail himself of his right within the time above prescribed.
Appraisal of the mortgaged property.
The board of appraisers as so constituted shall proceed to view and value the mortgaged property and all or a majority thereof shall make a sworn return within thirty days from their appointment of the true value of the property as of the date of sale, taking into consideration sale value, cost and replacement value of improvements, income production and all other proper elements which, in their discretion, enter into the determination of true value.
Effect of failure of appraisers to agree.
If a majority of the board shall not agree and make return within the time above prescribed another shall be likewise appointed of the same qualifications and with the same duties and likewise thereafter new boards shall be appointed until one shall make a return agreed to by a majority.
Return of appraisers; effect of return on deficiency judgment.
The return of the appraisers shall be filed and recorded by the clerk as a judgment of the court and be subject to appeal as hereinafter provided. If the value returned after deduction therefrom of the amount of the price at which the property was sold under direction of the court be equal to or exceed the amount of the deficiency remaining upon the judgment after application of the net proceeds of sale the judgment shall be thereupon extinguished and cancelled of record by the clerk and if such returned value, after deduction of the amount of the sale price, be less than the deficiency the latter shall be abated and deemed paid, pro tanto, and be thereafter enforcible for only the remainder, the amount of which will be determined by the clerk and stated in a proper order from which any party may appeal within ten days after notice of filing thereof to the court or any judge thereof in accord with the procedure prescribed in Section 29-3-750.
Appeal from return of appraisers.
The petitioner or the judgment creditor may appeal from the return of the appraisers upon notice stating the ground of such appeal served upon the other party within ten days after notice of the filing of the return, such appeal being to the court having jurisdiction of the action or any judge thereof, who shall hear the appeal without a jury in open court or at chambers upon affidavits or oral testimony as he deems advisable. Such court may confirm the return or order a new appraisal upon such terms as he may deem equitable and an appeal from his order or decree shall lie as in other equity cases.
Compensation and costs of appraisers and clerk.
The appraisers shall be paid two dollars each for their services and the clerk's costs for making orders, filing and recording shall be as for similar papers and pleadings.
Application of appraisal provisions to present and future mortgages.
The provisions of Sections 29-3-680 to 29-3-760, which are intended to affect the remedy of foreclosure, shall apply to the foreclosure of all real estate mortgages now existing and those hereafter executed but, if held invalid by a court of competent jurisdiction as to the former, they shall nevertheless be fully applicable to the latter; but unless the petition required by Section 29-3-680 be filed within the time prescribed, no deficiency judgment shall be affected hereby.
Entry of release of mortgage on land sold in foreclosure sale.
Upon confirmation of the circuit court of the report of the master or the other officer making a sale of lands pursuant to decree of foreclosure, the officer of the court making the sale shall cause to be recorded in the office where the foreclosed mortgage is recorded a release, cancellation, and satisfaction of the lien in the form prescribed in Section 29-3-790. However, nothing in this section may be construed to satisfy any unpaid portion of the debt secured by the mortgage.
Form of release of lien.
The release, cancellation, and satisfaction of lien required under Section 29-3-780 must be made in writing and signed by the officer and must be in the following form:
"Lien of mortgage recorded in _________________________________________,
(Mortgage Book and Page)
____________________ is released, canceled, and satisfied by sale
under foreclosure the _____ day of _______________, __________.
See Judgment Roll No. ______."