South Carolina Legislature


 

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S*588
Session 116 (2005-2006) 

S*0588(Rat #0119, Act #0110 of 2005)  General Bill, By Martin, Thomas, Bryant, 
McConnell, Alexander, Hayes and Malloy
 AN ACT TO AMEND CHAPTER 1 OF TITLE 35, CODE OF LAWS OF SOUTH CAROLINA, 1976,
 RELATING TO THE UNIFORM SECURITIES ACT, SO AS TO ENACT THE SOUTH CAROLINA
 UNIFORM SECURITIES ACT OF 2005, PROVIDING FOR AN ENHANCED ROLE OF THE STATE IN
 SECURITIES REGULATION AND INVESTOR PROTECTION INCLUDING REGISTRATION OF
 INITIAL PUBLIC OFFERINGS BY ISSUERS AND CONTROL PERSONS; REGISTRATION OF
 BROKER-DEALERS AND THEIR AGENTS AND INVESTMENT ADVISORS AND THEIR
 REPRESENTATIVES; EXPANDED INVESTIGATORY AND ENFORCEMENT POWERS THROUGH
 SUBPOENA POWER, CRIMINAL PENALTIES SET BY THE STATE, AND STATE CIVIL AND
 ADMINISTRATIVE LIABILITY; FACILITATION OF ELECTRONIC FILING; AND INVESTOR
 EDUCATION; TO AMEND SECTION 31-13-200, RELATING TO HOUSING AND REDEVELOPMENT
 NOTES AND BONDS; SECTION 35-6-10, AS AMENDED, RELATING TO DEFINITIONS FOR
 PURPOSES OF THE UNIFORM TRANSFER ON DEATH SECURITY REGISTRATION ACT; SECTION
 37-1-202, RELATING TO TRANSACTIONS NOT SUBJECT TO THE CONSUMER PROTECTION
 CODE; SECTION 38-90-440, AS AMENDED, RELATING TO THE STATE REGISTRATION OF A
 CAPTIVE INSURANCE COMPANY; AND SECTION 41-44-60, RELATING TO THE PALMETTO SEED
 CAPITAL FUND, ALL SO AS TO CONFORM CROSS-REFERENCES TO THE UNIFORM SECURITIES
 ACT OF 2005. - ratified title

   03/03/05  Senate Introduced and read first time SJ-17
   03/03/05  Senate Referred to Committee on Judiciary SJ-17
   03/30/05  Senate Committee report: Favorable with amendment
                     Judiciary SJ-18
   04/06/05  Senate Amended SJ-15
   04/06/05  Senate Read second time SJ-15
   04/07/05  Senate Read third time and sent to House SJ-18
   04/12/05  House  Introduced and read first time HJ-12
   04/12/05  House  Referred to Committee on Judiciary HJ-12
   05/18/05  House  Committee report: Favorable with amendment
                     Judiciary HJ-140
   05/24/05  House  Amended HJ-27
   05/24/05  House  Read second time HJ-37
   05/25/05  House  Read third time and returned to Senate with
                     amendments HJ-23
   05/25/05  Senate Concurred in House amendment and enrolled SJ-158
   05/26/05         Ratified R 119
   06/01/05         Signed By Governor
   06/07/05         Copies available
   06/07/05         Effective date 01/01/06
   06/07/05         Act No. 110





S. 588

(A110, R119, S588)

AN ACT TO AMEND CHAPTER 1 OF TITLE 35, CODE OF LAWS OF SOUTH CAROLINA, 1976, RELATING TO THE UNIFORM SECURITIES ACT, SO AS TO ENACT THE SOUTH CAROLINA UNIFORM SECURITIES ACT OF 2005, PROVIDING FOR AN ENHANCED ROLE OF THE STATE IN SECURITIES REGULATION AND INVESTOR PROTECTION INCLUDING REGISTRATION OF INITIAL PUBLIC OFFERINGS BY ISSUERS AND CONTROL PERSONS; REGISTRATION OF BROKER-DEALERS AND THEIR AGENTS AND INVESTMENT ADVISORS AND THEIR REPRESENTATIVES; EXPANDED INVESTIGATORY AND ENFORCEMENT POWERS THROUGH SUBPOENA POWER, CRIMINAL PENALTIES SET BY THE STATE, AND STATE CIVIL AND ADMINISTRATIVE LIABILITY; FACILITATION OF ELECTRONIC FILING; AND INVESTOR EDUCATION; TO AMEND SECTION 31-13-200, RELATING TO HOUSING AND REDEVELOPMENT NOTES AND BONDS; SECTION 35-6-10, AS AMENDED, RELATING TO DEFINITIONS FOR PURPOSES OF THE UNIFORM TRANSFER ON DEATH SECURITY REGISTRATION ACT; SECTION 37-1-202, RELATING TO TRANSACTIONS NOT SUBJECT TO THE CONSUMER PROTECTION CODE; SECTION 38-90-440, AS AMENDED, RELATING TO THE STATE REGISTRATION OF A CAPTIVE INSURANCE COMPANY; AND SECTION 41-44-60, RELATING TO THE PALMETTO SEED CAPITAL FUND, ALL SO AS TO CONFORM CROSS-REFERENCES TO THE UNIFORM SECURITIES ACT OF 2005.

Be it enacted by the General Assembly of the State of South Carolina:

South Carolina Uniform Securities Act

SECTION    1.    Chapter 1 of Title 35 of the 1976 Code is amended to read:

CHAPTER 1

South Carolina Uniform Securities Act of 2005

Article 1

General Provisions

Section 35-1-101.    This chapter may be cited as the South Carolina Uniform Securities Act of 2005.

South Carolina Reporters Comments

The South Carolina Uniform Securities Act of 2005 is adapted on behalf of the Judiciary and Insurance and Banking Committees of the South Carolina Senate by the South Carolina Law Institute based on the 2002 amendment and revision of the Uniform Securities Act promulgated by the National Conference of Commissioners on Uniform State Laws.

Section 35-1-102.    In this chapter, unless the context otherwise requires:

(1)    'Administrator' means the Attorney General.

(2)    'Agent' means an individual, other than a broker-dealer, who represents a broker-dealer in effecting or attempting to effect purchases or sales of securities, or represents an issuer in effecting or attempting to effect purchases or sales of the issuer's securities. But a partner, officer, or director of a broker-dealer or issuer, or an individual having a similar status or performing similar functions is an agent only if the individual otherwise comes within the term. The term does not include an individual excluded by rule adopted or order issued under this chapter.

(3)    'Bank' means:

(A)    a banking institution organized under the laws of the United States;

(B)    a member bank of the Federal Reserve System;

(C)    any other banking institution, whether incorporated or not, doing business under the laws of a State or of the United States, a substantial portion of the business of which consists of receiving deposits or exercising fiduciary powers similar to those permitted to be exercised by national banks under the authority of the Comptroller of the Currency pursuant to Section 1 of Public Law 87-722 (12 U.S.C. Section 92a), and which is supervised and examined by a state or federal agency having supervision over banks, and which is not operated for the purpose of evading this chapter; and

(D)    a receiver, conservator, or other liquidating agent of any institution or firm included in subparagraph (A), (B), or (C).

(4)    'Broker-dealer' means a person engaged in the business of effecting transactions in securities for the account of others or for the person's own account. The term does not include:

(A)    an agent;

(B)    an issuer;

(C)    a bank or savings institution if its activities as broker-dealer are limited to those specified in Section 3(a)(4) and 3(a)(5) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (15 U.S.C. Section 78c(a)(4) and (5)), or a bank that satisfies the conditions specified in Section 3(a)(4)(E) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (15 U.S.C. 78c(a)(4));

(D)    an international banking institution; or

(E)    a person excluded by rule adopted or order issued under this chapter.

(5)    'Depository institution' means:

(A)    a bank; or

(B)    a savings institution, trust company, credit union, or similar institution that is organized or chartered under the laws of a State or of the United States, authorized to receive deposits, and supervised and examined by an official or agency of a State or the United States if its deposits or share accounts are insured to the maximum amount authorized by statute by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, the National Credit Union Share Insurance Fund, or a successor authorized by federal law. The term does not include:

(i)        an insurance company or other organization primarily engaged in the business of insurance;

(ii)    a Morris Plan bank; or

(iii)    an industrial loan company that is not an 'insured depository institution' as defined in Section 3(c)(2) of the Federal Deposit Insurance Act, 12 U.S.C. 1813(c)(2), or any successor statute.

(6)    'Federal covered investment adviser' means a person registered under the Investment Advisers Act of 1940.

(7)    'Federal covered security' means a security that is, or upon completion of a transaction will be, a covered security under Section 18(b) of the Securities Act of 1933 (15 U.S.C. Section 77r(b)) or rules or regulations adopted pursuant to that provision.

(8)    'Filing' means the receipt under this chapter of a record by the Securities Commissioner or a designee of the Securities Commissioner.

(9)    'Fraud', 'deceit', and 'defraud' are not limited to common law deceit.

(10)    'Guaranteed' means guaranteed as to payment of all principal and all interest.

(11)    'Institutional investor' means any of the following, whether acting for itself or for others in a fiduciary capacity:

(A)    a depository institution or international banking institution;

(B)    an insurance company;

(C)    a separate account of an insurance company;

(D)    an investment company as defined in the Investment Company Act of 1940;

(E)    a broker-dealer registered under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934;

(F)    an employee pension, profit-sharing, or benefit plan if the plan has total assets in excess of ten million dollars or its investment decisions are made by a named fiduciary, as defined in the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974, that is a broker-dealer registered under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, an investment adviser registered or exempt from registration under the Investment Advisers Act of 1940, an investment adviser registered under this chapter, a depository institution, or an insurance company;

(G)    a plan established and maintained by a State, a political subdivision of a State, or an agency or instrumentality of a State or a political subdivision of a State for the benefit of its employees, if the plan has total assets in excess of ten million dollars or its investment decisions are made by a duly designated public official or by a named fiduciary, as defined in the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974, that is a broker-dealer registered under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, an investment adviser registered or exempt from registration under the Investment Advisers Act of 1940, an investment adviser registered under this chapter, a depository institution, or an insurance company;

(H)    a trust, if it has total assets in excess of ten million dollars, its trustee is a depository institution, and its participants are exclusively plans of the types identified in subparagraph (F) or (G), regardless of the size of their assets, except a trust that includes as participants self-directed individual retirement accounts or similar self-directed plans;

(I)    an organization described in Section 501(c)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code (26 U.S.C. Section 501(c)(3)), corporation, Massachusetts trust or similar business trust, limited liability company, or partnership, not formed for the specific purpose of acquiring the securities offered, with total assets in excess of ten million dollars;

(J)    a small business investment company licensed by the Small Business Administration under Section 301(c) of the Small Business Investment Act of 1958 (15 U.S.C. Section 681(c)) with total assets in excess of ten million dollars;

(K)    a private business development company as defined in Section 202(a)(22) of the Investment Advisers Act of 1940 (15 U.S.C. Section 80b-2(a)(22)) with total assets in excess of ten million dollars;

(L)    a federal covered investment adviser acting for its own account;

(M)    a 'qualified institutional buyer' as defined in Rule 144A(a)(1), other than Rule 144A(a)(1)(i)(H), adopted under the Securities Act of 1933 (17 C.F.R. 230.144A);

(N)    a 'major U.S. institutional investor' as defined in Rule 15a-6(b)(4)(i) adopted under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (17 C.F.R. 240.15a-6);

(O)    any other person, other than an individual, of institutional character with total assets in excess of ten million dollars not organized for the specific purpose of evading this chapter; or

(P)    any other person specified by rule adopted or order issued under this chapter.

(12)    'Insurance company' means a company organized as an insurance company whose primary business is writing insurance or reinsuring risks underwritten by insurance companies and which is subject to supervision by the insurance commissioner or a similar official or agency of a State.

(13)    'Insured' means insured as to payment of all principal and all interest.

(14)    'International banking institution' means an international financial institution of which the United States is a member and whose securities are exempt from registration under the Securities Act of 1933.

(15)    'Investment adviser' means a person that, for compensation, engages in the business of advising others, either directly or through publications or writings, as to the value of securities or the advisability of investing in, purchasing, or selling securities or that, for compensation and as a part of a regular business, issues or promulgates analyses or reports concerning securities. The term includes a financial planner or other person that, as an integral component of other financially related services, provides investment advice regarding securities to others for compensation as part of a business or that holds itself out as providing investment advice regarding securities to others for compensation. The term does not include:

(A)    an investment adviser representative;

(B)    a lawyer, accountant, engineer, or teacher whose performance of investment advice regarding securities is solely incidental to the practice of the person's profession;

(C)    a broker-dealer or its agents whose performance of investment advice regarding securities is solely incidental to the conduct of business as a broker-dealer and that does not receive special compensation for the investment advice regarding securities;

(D)    a publisher of a bona fide newspaper, news magazine, or business or financial publication of general and regular circulation;         (E)    a federal covered investment adviser;

(F)    a bank or savings institution;

(G)    any other person that is excluded by the Investment Advisers Act of 1940 from the definition of investment adviser; or

(H)    any other person excluded by rule adopted or order issued under this chapter.

(16)    'Investment adviser representative' means an individual employed by or associated with an investment adviser or federal covered investment adviser and who makes any recommendations or otherwise gives investment advice regarding securities, manages securities accounts or portfolios of clients, determines which recommendation or advice regarding securities should be given, provides investment advice regarding securities or holds herself or himself out as providing investment advice regarding securities, receives compensation to solicit, offer, or negotiate for the sale of or for selling investment advice regarding securities, or supervises employees who perform any of the foregoing. The term does not include an individual who:

(A)    performs only clerical or ministerial acts;

(B)    is an agent whose performance of investment advice regarding securities is solely incidental to the individual acting as an agent and who does not receive special compensation for investment advisory services;

(C)    is employed by or associated with a federal covered investment adviser, unless the individual has a 'place of business' in this State as that term is defined by rule adopted under Section 203A of the Investment Advisers Act of 1940 (15 U.S.C. Section 80b-3a) and is:

(i)        an 'investment adviser representative' as that term is defined by rule adopted under Section 203A of the Investment Advisers Act of 1940 (15 U.S.C. Section 80b-3a); or

(ii)    not a 'supervised person' as that term is defined in Section 202(a)(25) of the Investment Advisers Act of 1940 (15 U.S.C. Section 80b-2(a)(25)); or

(D)    is excluded by rule adopted or order issued under this chapter.

(17)    'Issuer' means a person that issues or proposes to issue a security, subject to the following:

(A)    The issuer of a voting trust certificate, collateral trust certificate, certificate of deposit for a security, or share in an investment company without a board of directors or individuals performing similar functions is the person performing the acts and assuming the duties of depositor or manager pursuant to the trust or other agreement or instrument under which the security is issued.

(B)    The issuer of an equipment trust certificate or similar security serving the same purpose is the person by which the property is or will be used or to which the property or equipment is or will be leased or conditionally sold or that is otherwise contractually responsible for assuring payment of the certificate.

(C)    The issuer of a fractional undivided interest in an oil, gas, or other mineral lease or in payments out of production under a lease, right, or royalty is the owner of an interest in the lease or in payments out of production under a lease, right, or royalty, whether whole or fractional, that creates fractional interests for the purpose of sale.

(18)    'Nonissuer transaction' or 'nonissuer distribution' means a transaction or distribution not directly or indirectly for the benefit of the issuer.

(19)    'Offer to purchase' includes an attempt or offer to obtain, or solicitation of an offer to sell, a security or interest in a security for value. The term does not include a tender offer that is subject to Section 14(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (15 U.S.C. 78n(d)).

(20)    'Person' means an individual; corporation; business trust; estate; trust; partnership; limited liability company; association; joint venture; government; governmental subdivision, agency, or instrumentality; public corporation; or any other legal or commercial entity.

(21)    'Place of business' of a broker-dealer, an investment adviser, or a federal covered investment adviser means:

(A)    an office at which the broker-dealer, investment adviser, or federal covered investment adviser regularly provides brokerage or investment advice regarding securities or solicits, meets with, or otherwise communicates with customers or clients; or

(B)    any other location that is held out to the general public as a location at which the broker-dealer, investment adviser, or federal covered investment adviser provides brokerage or investment advice regarding securities or solicits, meets with, or otherwise communicates with customers or clients.

(22)    'Predecessor chapter' means Chapter 1 of Title 35 of the South Carolina Code of Laws, 1976, prior to its amendment by the adoption of the South Carolina Uniform Securities Act of 2005.

(23)    'Price amendment' means the amendment to a registration statement filed under the Securities Act of 1933 or, if an amendment is not filed, the prospectus or prospectus supplement filed under the Securities Act of 1933 that includes a statement of the offering price, underwriting and selling discounts or commissions, amount of proceeds, conversion rates, call prices, and other matters dependent upon the offering price.

(24)    'Principal place of business' of a broker-dealer or an investment adviser means the executive office of the broker-dealer or investment adviser from which the officers, partners, or managers of the broker-dealer or investment adviser direct, control, and coordinate the activities of the broker-dealer or investment adviser.

(25)    'Record', except in the phrases 'of record', 'official record', and 'public record', means information that is inscribed on a tangible medium or that is stored in an electronic or other medium and is retrievable in perceivable form.

(26)    'Sale' includes every contract of sale, contract to sell, or disposition of, a security or interest in a security for value, and 'offer to sell' includes every attempt or offer to dispose of, or solicitation of an offer to purchase, a security or interest in a security for value. Both terms include:

(A)    a security given or delivered with, or as a bonus on account of, a purchase of securities or any other thing constituting part of the subject of the purchase and having been offered and sold for value;

(B)    a gift of assessable stock involving an offer and sale; and         (C)    a sale or offer of a warrant or right to purchase or subscribe to another security of the same or another issuer and a sale or offer of a security that gives the holder a present or future right or privilege to convert the security into another security of the same or another issuer, including an offer of the other security.

(27)    'Securities and Exchange Commission' means the United States Securities and Exchange Commission.

(28)    'Securities Commissioner' means the Attorney General.

(29)    'Security' means any note; stock; treasury stock; security future; bond; debenture; evidence of indebtedness; certificate of interest or participation in a profit-sharing agreement; collateral trust certificate; preorganization certificate or subscription; transferable share; investment contract; voting trust certificate; certificate of deposit for a security; fractional undivided interest in oil, gas, or other mineral rights; put, call, straddle, option, or privilege on a security, certificate of deposit, or group or index of securities, including an interest therein or based on the value thereof; put, call, straddle, option, or privilege entered into on a national securities exchange relating to foreign currency; or, in general, an interest or instrument commonly known as a 'security'; or a certificate of interest or participation in, temporary or interim certificate for, receipt for, guarantee of, or warrant or right to subscribe to or purchase, any of the foregoing. The term:

(A)    includes both a certificated and an uncertificated security;

(B)    does not include an insurance or endowment policy or annuity contract under which an insurance company promises to pay a sum of money either in a lump sum or periodically for life or other specified period;

(C)    does not include an interest in a contributory or noncontributory pension or welfare plan subject to the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974;

(D)    includes an investment in a common enterprise with the expectation of profits to be derived primarily from the efforts of a person other than the investor and a 'common enterprise' means an enterprise in which the fortunes of the investor are interwoven with those of either the person offering the investment, a third party, or other investors; and

(E)    'Investment contract' may include, among other contracts, an interest in a limited partnership and a limited liability company and shall include an investment in a viatical settlement or similar agreement.

(30)    'Self-regulatory organization' means a national securities exchange registered under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, a national securities association of broker-dealers registered under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, a clearing agency registered under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, or the Municipal Securities Rulemaking Board established under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934.

(31)    'Sign' means, with present intent to authenticate or adopt a record:

(A)    to execute or adopt a tangible symbol; or

(B)    to attach or logically associate with the record an electronic symbol, sound, or process.

(32)    'State' means a State of the United States, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, the United States Virgin Islands, or any territory or insular possession subject to the jurisdiction of the United States.

Official Comments

Prior Provisions: 1956 Act Section 401; RUSA 101.

1.    Under Section 605(a) the administrator has the power to define by rule any term, whether or not used in this chapter, as long as the definitions are not inconsistent with the chapter.

2.    All definitions include corresponding meanings. For example, "filing" would include "file" or "filed"; "sale" would include "sell."

3.    Prefatory Phrase: "In this [chapter], unless the context otherwise requires": Prior Provisions: 1956 Act Section 401 Preface; RUSA Section 101 Preface. This prefatory phrase which is in the counterpart provisions of the federal securities statutes, see, e.g., Securities Act of 1933 Section 2(a), provides the basis for the courts to take into account the statutory and factual context of each definition, see, e.g., Reves v. Ernst & Young, 494 U.S. 56 (1990); 2 Louis Loss & Joel Seligman, Securities Regulation 927-929 (3d ed. rev. 1999), and will allow the courts to harmonize this chapter's definitions with the counterpart federal securities definitions to the extent appropriate. Cf. Akin v. Q-L Inv., Inc., 959 F.2d 521, 532 (5th Cir. 1992) ("Texas courts generally look to decisions of the federal courts to interpret the Texas Securities Act because of obvious similarities between the state and federal laws"); Koch v. Koch Indus., Inc. 203 F.3d 1202, 1235 (10th Cir.2000) (following federal definition of materiality); Biales v. Young, 432 S.E.2d 482, 484 (S.C. 1993) ("Section 35-1-1490(2) is substantially similar to Section 12(1) of the Federal Securities Act").

4.    Section 102(2): Agent: Prior Provisions: 1956 Act Section 401(b); RUSA Section 101(14). Section (102)(2), in part, follows the 1956 Act definition. The 1956 Act used the term "agent" while the RUSA Section 101(14) used the term "sales representative." Given the broader enactment of the 1956 Act, this chapter also uses the term "agent." Certain exclusions from the 1956 Act are exemptions in this chapter. See Section 402(b).

Whether a particular individual who represents a broker-dealer or issuer is an "agent" depends upon much the same factors that create an agency relationship at common law. See, e.g., Norwest Bank Hastings v. Clapp, 394 N.W.2d 176, 179 (Minn. Ct. App. 1986) (following Official Comment that establishing agency under the Uniform Securities Act "depends upon much the same factors which create an agency relationship at common law"); Shaughnessy & Co., Inc. v. Commissioner of Sec., 1971-1978 Blue Sky L. Rep. (CCH) 71,348 (Wis. Cir. Ct. 1977) (unlicenced person who took information relevant to securities transactions and turned it over to securities agents was himself an agent).

An individual can be an agent for a broker-dealer or issuer for a purpose other than effecting or attempting to effect purchases or sales of securities and not be a statutory agent under this chapter. See, e.g., Baker, Watts & Co. v. Miles & Stockridge, 620 A.2d 356, 367 (Md. Ct. App. 1993) (attorney-client relationship is generally one of agency, but that alone does not bring an attorney within securities act definition of agent). An individual will not be an agent under Section 102(2) because of the person's status as a partner, officer, or director of a broker-dealer or issuer if such an individual does not effect or attempt to effect purchases or sales of securities. See, e.g., Abell v. Potomac Ins. Co., 858 F.2d 1104 (5th Cir. 1988).

Section 102(2) is intended to include any individual who acts as an agent, whether or not the individual is an employee or independent contractor. Cf. Hollinger v. Titan Capital Corp., 914 F.2d 1564 (9th Cir. en banc 1990), cert. denied, 499 U.S. 976 (1991).

The word "individual" in the definition of the term "agent" is limited to human beings and does not include a juridical "person" such as a corporation. Cf. definition of "person" in Section 102(20). The 1956 Act Section 401(b) similarly was limited to individuals and did not include juridical persons. See, e.g., Connecticut Nat'l Bank v. Giacomi, 699 A.2d 101, 111-112 (Conn. 1997) ("agent" only includes natural persons when it uses the term individual); Schpok v. Fodale, 236 N.W.2d 97, 99 (Mich. Ct. App. 1975) (agent defined to be individual and did not include a corporation).

An individual whose acts are solely clerical or ministerial would not be an agent under Section 102(2). Cf. Section 402(b)(8). Ministerial or clerical acts might include preparing written communications or responding to inquiries.

5.    Section 102(3): Bank: Prior Provision: Subsection 3(a)(6) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934. A United States branch of a foreign bank that otherwise satisfies this definition would be a bank.

6.    Section 102(4): Broker-Dealer: Prior Provisions: 1956 Act Section 401(c); RUSA Section 101(2). This definition generally follows the definition of broker-dealer in the 1956 Act and RUSA. The use of the compound term is meant to include either a broker or a dealer. The recognized distinction is that a broker acts for the benefit of another while a dealer acts for itself in buying for or selling securities from its own inventory.

The distinction between "a person engaged in the business of effecting transactions in securities" and an investor, who may buy and sell with some frequency and is outside the scope of this term, has been well developed in the case law. See 6 Louis Loss & Joel Seligman, Securities Regulation 2980-2984 (3d ed. 1990).

The 1956 Act Section 401(c) excluded from the definition of broker-dealer a person who during any twelve consecutive months did not direct more than 15 offers to buy or sell in this State. In this chapter exemptions from broker-dealer registration are provided in Section 401(b).

The Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act, signed into law in November 1999, rescinded the blanket exemption of banks from the definition of broker and dealer in Sections 3(a)(4) and (5) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934. The Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act permits a bank to avoid registration as a broker or dealer at the federal level if the bank limits its activities to those specified in the Securities Exchange Act. This chapter generally adopts the activity focused exceptions for banks included in the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act, with minor modifications relating to the private placement and de minimis brokerage activities of banks (15 U.S.C. 78c(a)(4)(B)(vii) and (xi)). This chapter also reaches savings institutions.

A state may decide to adopt an exclusion in Section 102(4)(C) that fully conforms with the bank exceptions contained in the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act. For states that choose this approach, the language of Section 102(4)(C) should read:

(C) a bank or savings institution if its activities as broker-dealer are limited to those specified in Section 3(a)(4) and 3(a)(5) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (15 U.S.C. Section 78c(a)(4) and (5)), or a bank that satisfies the conditions specified in Section 3(a)(4)(E) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (15 U.S.C. 78c(a)(4)). Section 102(4)(E) of this chapter also permits a securities administrator to adopt additional exclusions that exclude banks and other depository institutions, in whole or in part, from the definition of "broker-dealer."

States that promptly adopt this chapter should consider whether it is appropriate to provide banks a transition period to comply with the chapter's new activity focused exceptions. The activity focused exceptions for banks in the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act were originally to become effective at the federal level on May 12, 2001. However, the Securities and Exchange Commission has delayed the effective date of these activity focused exceptions and thus continued the blanket exemption for banks beyond May 12, 2001, and commenced a rulemaking designed to clarify and define the scope of the bank exceptions in the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act. See Sec. Ex. Act Rels. 44,291, 74 SEC Dock. 2155 (2001) (proposal); 45,897, 77 SEC Dock. 1555 (2002) (proposal). To avoid disrupting the activities of banks, states should consider delaying implementation of the activity focused exceptions in this chapter until these exceptions are implemented at the federal level.

Section 15(h)(1) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended by the National Securities Markets Improvement Act of 1996, preempts state law from "[establishing] capital, custody, margin, financial responsibility, making and keeping records, bonding, or financial or operational reporting requirements for brokers, dealers, municipal securities dealers, government securities brokers, or government securities dealers that differ from, or are in addition to the requirements in those areas established under [the Securities Exchange Act]." These preemptions are recognized in the substantive broker-dealer provisions in Article 4.

7.    Section 102(5): Depository institution: No Prior Provision. A depository institution's securities are addressed by the exemption in Section 201(3). A depository institution is an institutional investor in Section 102(11)(A).

8.    Section 102(6): Federal covered investment adviser: No Prior Provision. This provision is necessitated by Section 203A of the Investment Advisers Act of 1940, added by Title III of the National Securities Markets Improvement Act of 1996, which allocates to primary state regulation most advisers with assets under management of less than $25 million. SEC registration is permitted, but not required, for investment advisers having between $25 and $30 million of assets under management and is required of investment advisers having at least $30 million of assets under management. Investment Advisers Act of 1940 Rule 203A-1. Most advisers with assets under management of $25 million or more register solely under Section 203 of the Investment Advisers Act of 1940 and not state law. This division of labor is intended to eliminate duplicative regulation of investment advisers.

9.    Section 102(7): Federal covered security: No Prior Provision. The National Securities Markets Improvement Act of 1996, as subsequently amended, partially preempted state law in the securities offering and reporting areas. Under Section 18(a) of the Securities Act of 1933, no state statute, rule, order, or other administrative action may apply to:

(1)    The registration of a "covered" security or a security that will be a covered security upon completion of the transaction;

(2)(A)    any offering document prepared by or on behalf of the issuer of a covered security;

(2)(B)    any proxy statement, report to shareholders, or other disclosure document relating to a covered security or its issuer that is required to be filed with the SEC or any national securities association registered under Section 15A of the Securities Exchange Act such as the National Association of Securities Dealers (NASD); or

(3)    the merits of a covered security or a security that will be a covered security upon completion of the transaction.

Section 18(b) of the Securities Act of 1933 applies to four types of "covered securities":

(1)    Securities listed or authorized for listing on the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE), the American Stock Exchange (Amex); the National Market System of the Nasdaq stock market; or securities exchanges registered with the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) (or any tier or segment of their trading) if the SEC determines by rule that their listing standards are substantially similar to those of the NYSE, Amex, or Nasdaq National Market System, which the SEC has done through Rule 146; and any security of the same issuer that is equal in seniority or senior to any security listed on the NYSE, Amex, or Nasdaq National Market System;

(2)    securities issued by an investment company registered with the SEC (or one that has filed a registration statement under the Investment Company Act of 1940);

(3)    securities offered or sold to "qualified purchasers." This category of covered securities will become operational when the SEC defines the term "qualified purchaser" as used in Section 18(b)(3) of the Securities Act of 1933, by rule. To date the SEC has proposed, but not adopted, Rule 146(c) of the Securities Act of 1933; and

(4)    securities issued under the following specified exemptions of the Securities Act of 1933:

(A)    Sections 4(1) (transactions by persons other than an issuer, underwriter or dealer), and 4(3) (dealers after specified periods of time), but only if the issuer files reports with the Commission under Sections 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act;

(B)    Section 4(4) (unsolicited brokerage transactions);

(C)    Securities Act exemptions in Section 3(a) with the exception of the charitable exemption in Section 3(a)(4), the exchange exemption in Section 3(a)(10), the intrastate exemption in Section 3(a)(11), and the municipal securities exemption in Section 3(a)(2) but only with "respect to the offer or sale of such [municipal] security in the State in which the issuer of such security is located"; and

(D)    securities issued in compliance with SEC rules under Section 4(2) (private placements).

Section 18(c)(1) preserves state authority "to investigate and bring enforcement actions with respect to fraud or deceit, or unlawful conduct by a broker or dealer, in connection with securities or securities transactions."

The National Securities Markets Improvement Act, in essence, preempts aspects of the securities registration and reporting processes for specified federal covered securities. The chapter does not diminish state authority to investigate and bring enforcement actions generally with respect to securities transactions.

The States are authorized to require filings of any document filed with the SEC for notice purposes "together with annual or periodic reports of the value of securities sold or offered to be sold to persons located in the State (if such sales data is not included in documents filed with the Commission), solely for notice purposes and the assessment of any fee, together with a consent to service of process and any required fee." Section 18(c)(2). However, no filing or fee may be required with respect to any listed security that is a covered security under Section 18(b)(1) (traded on specified stock markets). Section 302 of this chapter addresses notice filings and fees applicable to federal covered securities.

10.    Section 102(8): Filing: Prior Provision: RUSA Section 101(4). The RUSA definition was revised to recognize that records may be filed in paper form or electronically with the administrator, or designees such as the Web-CRD (Central Registration Depository) or Investment Adviser Registration Depository (IARD) or the Securities and Exchange Commission's Electronic Data Gathering, Analysis and Retrieval System (EDGAR) or successor systems.

In the RUSA definition, the term "filed" referred to "actual delivery of a document or application." This chapter substitutes the term "record" which is defined in Section 102(25) to refer broadly to "information that is inscribed on a tangible medium or that is stored in an electronic or other medium and is retrievable in perishable form". This definition requires the receipt of a record. The definition does not limit filing to any specific medium such as mail, certified mail, or a particular electronic system. The definition is intended to permit an administrator to accept filings over the Internet or through a direct modem system, both of which are now used to transmit documents to EDGAR, or through new electronic systems as they evolve.

"Receipt" refers to the actual delivery of a record to the administrator or a designee and does not refer to a subsequent examination of the record by the administrator. See, e.g., Fehrman v. Blunt, 825 S.W.2d 658 (Mo. Ct. App. 1992). If a deficient form was provided to a designee, but not provided to the administrator because of the deficiency, it would not be filed under this definition.

11.    Section 102(9): Fraud, deceit and defraud: Prior Provisions: 1956 Act Section 401(d); RUSA Section 101(6). This definition, which is identical to the 1956 Act and RUSA, codifies the holdings that "fraud" as used in the federal and state securities statutes is not limited to common law deceit. See generally 7 Louis Loss & Joel Seligman, Securities Regulation 3421-3448 (3d ed. 1991).

12.    Section 102(10): Guaranteed: Prior Provisions: 1956 Act Section 401(e); RUSA Section 401(a)(1). The 1956 Act definition of "guaranteed" applies generally to payment of "principal, interest, or dividends." The RUSA definition of "guaranteed," which was solely applicable to exempt securities, applied to the guarantee of "all or substantially all of principal and interest or dividends."

Section 102(10) follows the 1956 Act approach and applies generally to the guarantee of "all principal and all interest." Any method of guarantee that results in a guarantee of payment of all principal and all interest will suffice including, for example, an irrevocable letter of credit.

This definition does not address whether or not a guarantee, whether whole or partial, is itself a security. That issue is addressed by the definition of "security" in Section 102(29).

13.    Section 102(11): Institutional investor: Prior Provisions: RUSA Section 101(5); Securities Act of 1933 Rules 144A and 501(a).

Sections 102(11)(A) through (K) are based on Rule 501(a) of the Securities Act of 1933, but do not include the paragraphs of Rule 501(a) that address individuals. Given the significant period of time since Rule 501(a) was adopted, this chapter has used a $10 million minimum for several categories of institutional investor rather than $5 million minimum used in Rule 501(a).

Section 102(11)(H) concludes with an except clause meant to exclude self-directed plans for individuals from this definition.

With respect to the exclusion of Rule 144A(a)(1)(H) from Section 102(11)(M), the substance of Rule 144A(a)(1)(H) appears in Section 102(11)(I), but with a requirement of total assets in excess of ten million dollars.

Section 102(11)(O) is meant to reach persons similar to those listed in Sections 102(11)(A) through (N), but not otherwise listed. Under Section 503, if challenged in a proceeding, the burden of proving the availability of an exemption is on the person claiming it. An interpretive opinion may be sought from the administrator under Section 605(d).

14.    Section 102(12): Insurance company: No Prior Provision. This definition is based on Securities Act of 1933 Section 2(a)(13).

15.    Section 102(13): Insured: Prior Provision: RUSA Section 401(a)(2). The RUSA definition of "insured," which was solely applicable to exempt securities, applied to the insurance of "all or substantially all of principal, interest, or dividends." Section 102(13) is applicable generally but is limited to "payment of all principal and all interest."

16.    Section 102(14): International banking institution: No Prior Provision. Securities issued or guaranteed by the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, 22 U.S.C. Section 286k-1(a); the Inter-American Development Bank, 22 U.S.C. Section 283h(a); the Asian Development Bank, 22 U.S.C. Section 285h(a); the African Development Bank, 22 U.S.C. Section 290i-9; and the International Finance Corporation, see 22 U.S.C. Section 282k; are treated as exempt securities under Section 3(a)(2) of the Securities Act of 1933, see generally 3 Louis Loss & Joel Seligman, Securities Regulation 1191-1194 (3d ed. rev. 1999), and are within this term.

17.    Section 102(15): Investment adviser: Prior Provisions: 1956 Act Section 401(f); RUSA Section 101(7). This term generally follows the definition in Section 202(a)(11) of the Investment Advisers Act of 1940, but has been updated to take into account new media such as the Internet.

The first sentence in Section 102(15) is identical to the first sentence in the 1956 Act Section 401(f) and the counterpart language in Section 202(a)(11). The RUSA definition deleted the phrases "either directly or through publications or writings" and "regular" before business. These terms have been returned to Section 102(15) because of the intention that this definition be construed uniformly with the definition in Section 202(a)(11) of the Investment Advisers Act of 1940. This first sentence would not reach the author of a book who did not receive compensation as part of a regular business for providing investment advice.

The second sentence in the term addressing financial planners is new. The purpose of this sentence is to achieve functional regulation of financial planners who satisfy the definition of investment adviser. Cf. Investment Advisers Act Release 1092, 39 SEC Dock. 494 (1987) (similar approach in Securities and Exchange Commission interpretative Release). This reference is not intended to preclude persons who hold a formally recognized financial planning or consulting designation or certification from using this designation. The use by a person of a title, designation or certification as a financial planner or other similar title, designation, or certification alone does not require registration as an investment adviser.

Sections 102(15)(A) through (H) are exclusions from the term "investment adviser." An excluded person can be held liable for fraud in providing investment advice, see Section 502, but would not be subject to the registration and regulatory provisions in Article 4.

Sections 102(15)(A) and (E) are new and recognize that investment adviser representatives and federal covered investment advisers are separately treated in this chapter. See definitions in Sections 102(6) and 102(16); registration and exemptions in Sections 404-405.

Sections 102(15)(B), (C), and (G) are substantively identical to the 1956 Act, RUSA, and the Investment Advisers Act of 1940. The Official Comment to the 1956 Act Section 401(f) quoted an opinion of the Securities and Exchange Commission General Counsel in Investment Advisers Act Release 2 on the meaning of "special compensation" included in Section 102(15)(C):

[This clause] amounts to a recognition that brokers and dealers commonly give a certain amount of advice to their customers in the course of their regular business, and that it would be inappropriate to bring them within the scope of the Investment Advisers Act merely because of this aspect of their business. On the other hand, that portion of clause [(C)], which refers to 'special compensation', amounts to an equally clear recognition that a broker or dealer who is specially compensated for the rendition of advice should be considered an investment adviser and not be excluded from the purview of the chapter merely because he is also engaged in effecting market transactions in securities. . . . The essential distinction to be borne in mind in considering borderline cases . . . is the distinction between compensation for advice itself and compensation for services of another character to which advice is merely incidental.

Similarly, other broker-dealer employees such as research analysts who receive no special compensation from third parties for investment advice would not be required to register as investment advisers.

The 1956 Act definition added the word "paid" in Section 401(f)(4) to the counterpart exclusion in Section 202(a)(11) of the Investment Advisers Act "to emphasize," as the Official Comment explained, "that a person who periodically distributes a 'tipster sheet' free as a way to get paying clients is not excluded from the definition as a 'publisher.'"

After the 1956 Act was published, the United States Supreme Court construed the definition of investment adviser in Lowe v. SEC, 472 U.S. 181 (1985), and concluded:

"Congress did not intend to exclude publications that are distributed by investment advisers as a normal part of the business of servicing their clients. The legislative history plainly demonstrates that Congress was primarily interested in regulating the business of rendering personalized investment advice, including publishing activities that are a normal incident thereto. On the other hand, Congress, plainly sensitive to First Amendment concerns, wanted to make clear that it did not seek to regulate the press through the licensing of nonpersonalized publishing activities."

Id. at 185.

Responsive to this language RUSA rewrote this exclusion to provide:

a publisher, employee, or columnist of a newspaper, news magazine, or business or financial publication, or an owner, operator, or employee of a cable, radio, or television network, station, or production facility, if, in either case, the financial or business news published or disseminated is made available to the general public and the content does not consist of rendering advice on the basis of the specific investment situation of each client.

Recent experience at the federal and state levels suggest that the 1956 Act and RUSA approaches may be too broad. The retention of the Investment Advisers Act approach provides a better balance between First Amendment concerns and protection of investors from non-"bona fide" publicizing of investment advice. The exclusion in Section 102(15)(D) is intended to exclude publishers of Internet or electronic media, but only if the Internet or electronic media publication or website satisfies the "bona fide" and "publication of general and regular circulation" requirements. Cf. SEC v. Park, 99 F. Supp. 2d 889, 895-896 (N.D. Ill. 2000) (court declined to dismiss complaint against an Internet website when there were allegations that the website was not "bona fide" or of "general and regular circulation").

The exclusion in Section 102(15)(G) is required by the National Securities Markets Improvement Act of 1996. This exclusion will reach banks and bank holding companies as described in Investment Advisers Act Section 202(a)(11)(A) and persons whose advice solely concerns United States government securities as described in Section 202(a)(11)(E).

18.    Section 102(16): Investment adviser representative: No Prior Provision. Investment adviser representatives have not been required to register under the federal Investment Advisers Act, before or after the National Securities Markets Improvement Act.

The term investment adviser representative is not intended to preclude persons who hold a formally recognized financial planning or consulting title, designation, or certification from using such a designation. The use by a person of a title, designation or certification as a financial planner, or other similar title, designation, or certification alone does not require registration as an investment adviser representative.

19.    Section 102(17): Issuer: Prior Provisions: 1956 Act Section 401(g); RUSA Section 101(8).     This Section generally follows the 1956 Act and RUSA.

In paragraph (B), the phrase "or that is otherwise contractually responsible for assuring payment of the certificate" is intended to address forms of payment other than leases or conditional sales contracts. It would also reach guarantors.

20.    Section 102(18): Nonissuer transaction or nonissuer distribution: Prior Provisions: 1956 Act Section 401(h); RUSA Section 101(9). This definition is relevant to several exempt transactions in Section 202.

In TechnoMedical Labs, Inc. v. Utah Sec. Div., 744 P.2d 320 (Utah Ct. App. 1987), the court declined to limit the term benefit to monetary benefits and instead held a spinoff transaction could provide direct or indirect benefits to an issuer. Id. at 323-324, following SEC v. Datronics Eng'r, Inc., 490 F.2d 250 (4th Cir. 1973), cert. denied, 416 U.S. 937; SEC v. Harwin Indus. Corp., 326 F. Supp. 943 (S.D.N.Y. 1971). In a similar fashion, transactions by officers, directors, promoters, and other insiders of the issuer may benefit the issuer and may not qualify as nonissuer transactions.

21.    Section 102(19): Offer to purchase: No Prior Provision: A rescission offer under Section 510 would be an offer to purchase with respect to a security that earlier had been sold.

22.    Section 102(20): Person: Prior Provisions: 1956 Act Section 401(i); RUSA Section 101(10). This is the standard definition used by the National Conference of Commissioners for Uniform State Laws with the addition of "limited liability company" to reflect current usage. The use of the concluding phrase "or any other legal or commercial entity" is intended to be broad enough to include other forms of business entities that may be created or popularized in the future.

23.    Section 102(21): Place of business: Prior Provision: Rules 203A-3(b) and 222-1 of the Investment Advisers Act of 1940.

24.    Section 102(23): Price amendment: Prior Provision: RUSA Section 101(11). A price amendment may be used in a registration coordinated with the Securities and Exchange Commission procedure in Section 303(d). In the case of noncash offerings, required information concerning such matters as the offering price and underwriting arrangements is normally filed in a "price" amendment after the rest of the registration statement has been reviewed by the Securities and Exchange Commission staff. See generally 1 Louis Loss & Joel Seligman, Securities Regulation 542-550 (3d ed. rev. 1998).

25.    Section 102(24): Principal place of business: Prior Provision: Rule 222-1(b) of the Investment Advisers Act of 1940.

26.    Section 102(25): Record: Prior Provision: Uniform Electronic Transactions Act Section 2(13). Cf. Section 3(a)(37) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934. The Uniform Electronic Transactions Act Section 2(13) defines record in nearly identical terms. The Official Comment explains:

This is a standard definition designed to embrace all means of communicating or storing information except human memory. It includes any method for storing or communicating information, including "writings." A record need not be indestructible or permanent, but the term does not include oral or other communications which are not stored or preserved by some means.

This term is intended to embrace new forms of records that are created or popularized in the future. A record would include, but not be limited to, a registration statement, report, application, book, publication, account, paper, correspondence, memorandum, agreement, document, computer file, or disk, microfilm, photograph, or audio or visual tape.

27.    Section 102(26): Sale: Prior Provisions: 1956 Act Section 401(j); RUSA Section 101(13). Both the 1956 Act and RUSA definition of "sale" are modeled on Section 2(a)(3) of the Securities Act of 1933.

Language in Section 401(j) of the 1956 Act addressed the now rescinded SEC "no sale" doctrine and has been eliminated. Merger transactions are usually sales under Section 102(26), but may be exempted from the securities registration requirements by Section 202(18).

28.    Section 102(29): Security: Prior Provisions: 1956 Act Section 401(1); RUSA Section 101(16).

Much of the definition in Section 102(29), like the definitions in the 1956 Act Section 401(l) and RUSA Section 101(16), is identical to the definition in Section 2(a)(1) of the Securities Act. State courts interpreting the Uniform Securities Act definition of security have often looked to interpretations of the federal definition of security. See generally 2 Louis Loss & Joel Seligman, Security Regulation 923-1138.19 (3d ed. rev. 1999).

The most recent amendments to Section 2(a)(1) of the Securities Act of 1933 were added by the Commodities Futures Modernization Act of 2000 which added or revised language in the Securities Act addressing security futures and securities puts, calls, straddles, options, or privileges. Identical language has been included in Section 102(29) of this chapter to harmonize interpretation of the federal and state definition of a "security." With respect to a security futures product, Section 28(a) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended by the Commodity Futures Modernization Act of 2000, further provides: "No provision of any State law regarding the offer, sale or distribution of securities shall apply to any transaction in a security futures product, except that this sentence shall not be construed as limiting any State antifraud law of general applicability."

Preorganization certificates or subscriptions are included in this term, obviating the need for a separate definition as was included in RUSA Section 402(13).

Section 102(29) uses RUSA's "fractional undivided interest in oil, gas or other mineral rights" formulation, which originated in Section 2(a)(1) of the Securities Act of 1933, rather than the 1956 Act formulation, "certificate of interest or participation in an oil, gas or mining title." In recent years, courts interpreting Section 2(a)(1) of the Securities Act of 1933 have found certain oil, gas or mineral rights to be investment contracts (that is, securities). 2 Louis Loss & Joel Seligman, Securities Regulation 979-982 (3d ed. rev. 1999).

A new sentence was added in Section 102(29)(A) referring to certificated or uncertificated securities to indicate that the term is intended to apply whether or not a security is evidenced by a writing. Section 102(29)(A) is intended to reject Thomas v. State of Tex., 65 S.W.3d 38 (Tex. Crim. App. 2001) (Under Texas law evidence of indebtedness requires a writing).

Insurance or endowment policies or endowment or annuity contracts, other than those on which an insurance company promises to make variable payments, are excluded from this term. Variable insurance products are also excluded in many states and are exempted from securities registration in others under provisions such as Section 201(4). When variable products are included in the definition of security and exempted from registration state securities administrators can bring enforcement actions concerning variable insurance sales practices.

The Drafting Committee recognized that the decision whether to exclude variable annuities from the definition of security will be made on a state-by-state basis. Those states which intend to exclude variable products from the definition of security should add the words "or variable" to Section 102(29)(B) so that it will read:

(B)    The term does not include an insurance or endowment policy or annuity contract under which an insurance company promises to pay a fixed or variable sum of money either in a lump sum or periodically for life or other specified period.

In the view of the American Council of Life Insurers:

The brackets around the words "or variable" should be removed to follow the majority of jurisdictions. Thirty-seven jurisdictions [including Guam] currently exclude all insurance, endowment and annuity contracts from the definition of security. Removal of the brackets around the words "or variable," therefore, would incorporate the approach taken in the majority of jurisdictions. The removal of these brackets also prevents a statutory conflict with [up to] 48 jurisdictions that grant the insurance commissioner exclusive jurisdiction to regulate the issuance and sale of variable contracts. Moreover, this approach recognizes that the issuance and sale of variable contracts is comprehensively regulated by the Securities and Exchange Commission, the National Association of Securities Dealers, 50 state insurance departments, and in the case of group life and annuities, the Department of Labor. Like all other financial products, this approach imposes only one, rather than two, levels of regulation in each state and reflects the philosophy of financial services modernization.

In the view of the North American Securities Administrators Association variable products should be exempted from registration, not excluded from the definition of securities:

One of the goals of this chapter is to align state and federal law. The United States Supreme Court ruled that a variable annuity is a security in SEC v. Variable Annuity Life Insurance Company of America, 359 U.S. 65 (1959). More recently, it has been confirmed that variable insurance products are "covered securities" as defined in the National Securities Markets Improvement Act of 1996 (NSMIA) and in the Securities Litigation Uniform Standards Act of 1998 (SLUSA), see Lander v. Hartford Life Annuity Ins., 251 F.3d 101 (2d Cir. 2001).

When variable products are included in the definition of security and exempted from registration, state securities administrators can bring enforcement actions concerning variable insurance sales practices.

This approach toward functional regulation is supported by the National Association of Securities Dealers as evidenced by a February 2001 letter from Mary Schapiro, President of Regulatory Policy & Oversight: "Based on our experience, we have found that variable products' sales-related problems parallel those of mutual funds and other securities. Because of the substantial similarities between variable contracts and other securities products, we believe it is incongruous for agents and sales practices involved in variable annuities not to be covered by state securities laws."

State securities regulators support the functional regulation of agents because: 1) insurance companies are not affected since state securities regulators are preempted from requiring the registration of variable products; 2) the vast majority of broker-dealer subsidiaries of insurance companies are already registered to sell securities in most states; and 3) the vast majority of agents are already dually licensed to sell insurance and securities in most states.

Section 102(29)(C) includes the exclusion in RUSA from the 1956 definition of security for "an interest in a contributory or noncontributory pension or welfare plan subject to the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974."

The first clause in Section 102(29)(D) is derived from the leading case of SEC v. W.J. Howey Co., 328 U.S. 293 (1946), which has been widely followed by federal and state courts. The second clause in Section 102(29)(D) is based, in part, on the leading case of SEC v. Glenn W. Turner Enter., Inc., 474 F.2d 476, 482 n.7 (9th Cir. 1973), cert. denied, 419 U.S. 900 (1974).

The courts have divided over the interpretation of the "common enterprise" element of an investment contract. The courts generally recognize that "horizontal" commonality (for example, the pooling of an investment by two or more investors) is a common enterprise. A small minority of the federal circuits will also find a common enterprise in a "vertical" relationship when a single investor is dependent upon the expertise of a single commodities broker. Since two or more persons do not share in the profitability of an undertaking, it is difficult to argue that there is a common enterprise. Section 102(29)(D) follows a significantly larger number of federal circuits and adopts a more restrictive form of vertical commonality that occurs only when there is profit sharing between two persons even if, for example, one is a conventional investor and one is a promoter. See generally 2 Louis Loss & Joel Seligman, Securities Regulation 989-997 (3d ed. Rev. 1999).

In interpreting all elements of the investment contract, the courts have emphasized substance, not form. A conventional partnership involving two individuals who actively participate in its management and who each own 50 percent interest of its profits has consistently not been viewed as an investment contract because profits do not come from the efforts of others. On the other hand, investments in limited partnership interests which are traded on stock exchanges consistently have been held to be investment securities because profits do come substantially from the efforts of others. Indeed, interests in an entity called a general partnership may be a security when the general partnership functions like a limited partnership. See, e.g., Williamson v. Tucker, 645 F.2d 404, 424 (5th Cir. 1981), cert. denied, 454 U.S. 897 (1981); see generally 2 Loss & Seligman, supra, at 1019-1033.

Section 102(29)(E) is consistent with state and federal securities laws which have recognized interests in limited liability companies and limited partnerships in some circumstances as "securities," see 2 Louis Loss & Joel Seligman, Securities Regulation 1028-1031 (3d ed. rev. 1999), when consistent with the court decisions interpreting the investment contract concept. This chapter also refers to an investment in a viatical settlement or a similar agreement to make unequivocally clear that viatical settlement and similar agreements, which otherwise satisfy the definition of an investment contract, are securities. This is intended to reject the holding of one court that a viatical contract could not be a security. See SEC v. Life Partners Inc., 87 F.3d 536 (D.C. Cir. 1996), reh'g denied, 102 F.3d 587 (D.C. Cir. 1996). A number of states have done so by statute.

Judicial construction of the term "investment contract" has been the most frequently litigated issue concerning the term "security." See Gabaldon, A Sense of Security: An Empirical Study, 25 J. Corp. L. 307 (2000), explaining that there had been 792 cases decided to that date in which the definition of a security played a prominent role. Id. at 308. Some 461 of the 792 cases (58 percent) concerned investment contracts. Id. at 322. A number of states, by statute, rule, or case law have also adopted the "risk capital" test to find a security when an investment is subject to the risks of an enterprise with the expectation of profit or other valuable benefit and the investor has no direct control over the management of the enterprise. See, e.g., 2 Loss & Seligman, supra, at 939-940 n.50.

29.    Section 102(30): Self-regulatory organization: Prior Provision: RUSA Section 101(17). This definition was added by RUSA and is based on a counterpart provision in the American Law Institute Federal Securities Code. At the current time national securities exchanges are registered under Section 6 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934; national securities associations under Section 15A; clearing agencies under Section 17A; and the Municipal Securities Rulemaking Board under Section 15B.

30.    Section 102(31): Sign: No Prior Provision. This definition is intended to facilitate electronic signatures, to the extent permitted by Section 105.

31.    Section 102(32): State: Prior Provisions: 1956 Act Section 401(m); RUSA Section 101(18). This is the standard definition used by the National Conference of Commissioners on Uniform State Laws. It does include territories and possessions of the United States, as well as the District of Columbia and Puerto Rico, but does not include foreign governments, their territories, or their possessions. In this chapter "foreign" always refers to activity, a government, or person outside of the United States, not a different state within the United States.

South Carolina Reporter's Comments

1.    Section 35-1-102(1): "Administrator." Prior law used the term "Securities commissioner" which Section 35-1-20(1) defined as the Attorney General. []The change in designation was not intended to make any substantive change from prior law. South Carolina changed the reference in this chapter from "administrator" to "Securities Commissioner". This section simply clarifies that any references to an administrator are inadvertent.

2.    Section 35-1-102(2): "Agent." This definition substantially follows the prior provision found at Section 35-1-20(2). A prior amendment in 1990 deleted the mention of certain exclusions found elsewhere in that chapter that are now included in Section 35-1-402(b) of this chapter. The wording changes in this chapter are not intended to make any substantive change from prior law.

The definition of "agent" has been discussed in two cases. A financial institution which made a loan which served as capital for an investment fraudulently promoted by others, but which did not assist in the preparation of the offering documents nor urge investors to purchase interests, was not an "agent" because it did not assist or attempt to assist the sale of limited partner interests in the venture. Atlanta Skin Care & Cancer Clinic, P.C. v. Hallmark Gen. Partners, Inc., 320 S.C. 113, 463 S.E.2d 600 (1995). A District Court interpreting South Carolina law held that attorneys engaged in traditional advisory functions were not agents under Section 35-1-20(2). In CFT Seaside Investment Limited Partnership v. Hammet, et al., 868 F. Supp. 836, Fed. Sec. L. Rep. P. 98, 602 (D.S.C. 1994), the court articulated that while an attorney-client relationship is ordinarily one of agency, the definition in Section 35-1-20(2) is directed toward one who assists directly in the offering or conducts the sale but does not fall under the definition of broker-dealer. Thus, attorneys who merely offer legal advice or draft documents for use in securities transactions are not "agents" under that definition.

3.    Section 35-1-102(3): "Bank." This term is new. Prior law excluded a bank from the definition of a broker-dealer in Section 35-1-20(3). Atlanta Skin & Cancer Clinic, P.C. v. Hallmark Gen. Partners, Inc., 320 S.C. 113, 463 S.E.2d 600 (1995).

The 1997 amendment deleted any reference to exclusions from the term "broker-dealer." In 1999, the federal Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act (GLBA) rescinded the blanket exemption of banks under federal securities laws, by adopting a "functional" approach focusing on the activities engaged in by the bank. The new chapter adopts this "functional" approach in its definition of a broker-dealer in Section 102(4).

4.    Section 35-1-102(4): "Broker-dealer." The first sentence substantially follows the prior provision in Section 35-1-20(3).     The partial exclusions of banks and savings institutions, and the exclusion of international banking institutions are new. Prior to being rewritten in the 1997 amendment, Section 35-1-20(3) contained a blanket exclusion of banks from the definition of "broker-dealer." Atlanta Skin & Cancer Clinic, P.C. v. Hallmark Gen. Partners, Inc., 320 S.C. 113, 463 S.E.2d 600 (1995).

The 1997 amendment dropped any reference to banks being included or excluded as "broker-dealers." There is no precedent in South Carolina case law which defines "broker-dealer" to include a bank. The federal GLBA rescinded the blanket exemption of banks under federal securities laws, by adopting a "functional" approach focusing on the activities engaged in by the bank. The new chapter adopts this "functional" approach with respect to banks in its definition of a broker-dealer in Section 35-1-102(4). South Carolina elected to adopt the alternate language, proposed by the National Conference of Commissioners on Uniform State Acts, which fully conforms to the bank exceptions in the Graham-Leach-Bliley Act. The reference in this chapter to excluding an agent from the definition of "broker-dealer" is consistent with the prior law found in Section 35-1-20(2) which defined an agent, in part, as "any individual, other than a broker-dealer, who represents a broker-dealer or issuer in effecting or attempting to effect purchasers or sales of securities." The exclusion of an "issuer" from the definition of "broker-dealer" in this chapter is also consistent with the pre-1997 definition of "broker-dealer" in Section 35-1-20(3). Since the 1997 amendment, there is no South Carolina precedent holding that a "broker-dealer" includes an issuer. The provision allowing the exclusion of a person "by rule adopted or order issued under this chapter," is a new provision which is primarily designed to allow the Administrator the ability to exclude banks and other depository institutions, in whole or in part, from the definition of a "broker-dealer."

5.    Section 35-1-102(5): "Depository institution." This term is new. The definition includes not only a "bank" but broadens its coverage to include other types of depository institutions such as savings institutions, trust companies, and credit unions.

6.    Section 35-1-102(6): "Federal covered investment adviser." This section is substantially similar to Section 35-1-20(4) which was enacted in 1997, after passage of the National Securities Markets Improvements Act of 1996 (NSMIA). NSMIA allocates to the states primary regulation of most investment advisors with assets under management of less than $25 million. Advisors managing between $25 million and $30 million of assets are permitted to register with the SEC. Those advisors who manage at least $30 million in assets are required to register with the SEC. Most advisors who manage assets greater than $25 million register only under Section 35-1-203 of the federal Investment Advisors Act. The new provision will continue to align this State's approach with that mandated in NSMIA.

7.    Section 35-1-102(7): "Federal covered security." This definition is substantially similar to the prior law found in Section 35-1-20(5) which was adopted after the 1996 passage of NSMIA, and no substantive change was intended in this definition. In order to prevent duplication and improve coordination between federal and state securities regulation, NSMIA preempted state law in the area of securities offerings and reporting for "federal covered securities." Section 18(a) of the Securities Act of 1933 states that no state may regulate as to reporting and registration, while Section 18(b) applies those prohibitions to four classes of "covered securities." The four types of securities are: (1) securities listed on the NYSE, Amex or NASDAQ markets or SEC registered securities determined as having met substantially similar listing standards; (2) securities issued by an investment company registered with the SEC, such as a mutual fund, or one that has filed a registration statement; (3) securities offered or sold to "qualified purchasers" (once the SEC defines that term); or (4) securities offered under certain specific exemptions of the Securities Act of 1933. While the State has undiminished authority to investigate and bring enforcement actions with respect to these securities, the registration and reporting regulation of "federal covered securities" will rest with the SEC.

8.    Section 35-1-102(8): "Filing." This term is substantially similar to prior law found in Section 35-1-100 which was adopted in 1997. This definition is designed to recognize the electronic filing of a document as well as the filing of a paper document. No substantive change is intended by the new wording.

9.    Section 35-1-102(9): "Fraud, deceit, and defraud." This language is identical to the prior provision found at Section 35-1-20(6).

10.    Section 35-1-102(10): "Guaranteed." This language differs from prior law found at Section 35-1-20(7) in that the new language deletes reference to guaranteeing the payment of "dividends." The other minor changes are not intended to make any substantive departure from prior law.

11.    Section 35-1-102(11): "Institutional investor." This term is new. Since federal law presumes that the notice and merit review mechanisms are unnecessary where the purchaser is an "institutional investor," sales or offers to sell to such a purchaser are "exempt transactions" under Section 35-1-202(13)(A). There can be no registration requirement (Sections 35-1-301 through 35-1-306) and no required filing of sales and advertising literature (Section 35-1-504) at the state level for such purchasers.

12.    Section 35-1-102(12): "Insurance company." This term is new.

13.    Section 35-1-102(13): "Insured." This term is new.

14.    Section 35-1-102(14): "International banking institution." This term is new. Securities issued or guaranteed by "international banking institutions" are required by federal law to be exempt from registration and merit review at the state level.

15.    Section 35-1-102(15): "Investment adviser." The first two sentences of this definition are substantially similar to prior law found at Section 35-1-20(8). The exclusions in subsections (A)-(H), are from the registration and regulatory provisions in Article 4, but an excluded person can be held liable under this chapter for fraud in providing investment advice pursuant to Section 35-1-502. South Carolina amended the proposed chapter by adding "regarding securities" after the term "investment advice" for purposes of making the scope of the exclusions consistent with the initial definition of investment adviser. The exclusion in subsection (D) is somewhat narrower than those in the 1997 amendment in that the new exclusion is limited to publications of "general and regular circulation." This change is based upon the recent experience of state and federal regulators that indicates a restriction of the exclusion to that found in the Investment Advisors Act may strike a better balance between First Amendment concerns and protecting investors from the publication of investment advice that is not "bona fide." The limitation in Section 35-1-102(15)(D) is intended to exclude Internet and electronic media publishers but only if they meet the "bona fide" requirement which was also found in prior law, and the new "general and regular circulation" requirement in this section.

16.    Section 35-1-102(16): "Investment adviser representative." This definition revises prior law (found at Section 35-1-20(a)) which was adopted in 1997 after passage of the 1996 NSMIA. The reworded definition is similar to prior law except that this definition includes specific exclusions. The exclusion in Section 35-1-102(16)(B) for agents whose investment advice is "solely incidental to the individual acting as an agent and who does not receive special compensation for investment advisory service" mirrors the exclusion in Section 35-1-102(15)(C). The exclusion in Section 35-1-102(16)(C) harmonizes this chapter with the federal Investment Advisors Act after NSMIA. South Carolina added as qualifying language "regarding securities" and "securities' accounts" in order to be clear that the definition of the term applies only to securities advice and securities accounts.

17.    Section 35-1-102(17): "Issuer." This definition generally follows prior law found in Section 35-1-20(10).

18.    Section 35-1-102(18): "Nonissuer transaction" or "nonissuer distribution." Prior law is found at Section 35-1-20(11). Because of new provisions for exempt transactions in Section 35-1-202, this definition is relevant. There is no intent to make a substantive change from prior law.

19.    Section 35-1-102(19): "Offer to purchase." This definition is new. The rescission remedy under prior law for "purchasers" is now expanded by Section 35-1-510 to include "sellers" of securities.

20.    Section 35-1-102(20): "Person." This definition is similar to prior law found at Section 35-1-20(12). The new definition is worded in broader language to include any present or future form of business entity.

21.    Section 35-1-102(21): "Place of business." This definition is new.

22.    Section 35-1-102(22): The Uniform Securities Act of 2002 contained language to repeal an enacting State's existing securities laws and this section would have defined the repealed chapter. South Carolina opted to amend its existing laws rather than repeal them, so this definition is revised from the uniform language to reflect that procedure.

23.    Section 35-1-102(23): "Price amendment." This definition is new and is applicable to registrations coordinated with the SEC in Section 35-1-303(d).

24.    Section 35-1-102(24): "Principal place of business." This definition is new.

25.    Section 35-1-102(25): "Record." This definition is new. It is relevant to the definition of "filing" in Section 35-1-102(8).

26.    Section 35-1-102(26): "Sale" and "Offer to sell." This definition revises prior law found at Section 35-1-20(13). The definition is substantially similar to Section 35-1-20(13)(a)-(e) of prior law, but deletes prior subsection (f). Under current case law, one does not have to pass title to be a "seller." For nonowners, the South Carolina Supreme Court in Biales v. Young, 315 S.C. 166, 432 S.E.2d 482 (1993), used the test set forth in Pinter v. Dahl, 486 U.S. 622 (1988). A nonowner can be a "seller" by soliciting a purchase and being motivated at least in part by the desire to serve either his own financial interest or the interest of the seller. Biales, 432 S.E.2d at 485. Transactional attorneys, so long as they refrain from persuading or urging buyers to purchase securities, would not meet the solicitation test and would not be held to be sellers. Id. See also, CFT Seaside Inv. Ltd. P'ship v. Hammett, 868 F. Supp. 836, 842 (D.S.C. 1994). To be an employee of a seller, an employee must be subject to the control of a seller to "direct the particular work or undertaking as to the means or manner of its accomplishment." Allen v. Columbia Fin. Mgmt., 297 S.C. 481, 377 S.E.2d 352 (Ct. App. 1988). This test normally excludes attorneys, id., and should exclude other professionals performing their normal roles. The new provision does not explicitly exempt a loan from the definition of a "sale." As such, the holding in Crim v. E. F. Hutton, 298 S.C. 448, 381 S.E.2d 492 (1989), is now subject to question since a loan is now subject to the test for a security. See, S.C. Nat'l Bank v. Darmstadter, 622 F. Supp. 226 (D.S.C. 1985).

A minority shareholder does not significantly participate in the sale, and therefore is not a seller, where his only participation is to transfer his stock certificate. McCall v. Finley, 294 S.C. 1, 362 S.E.2d 26 (Ct. App. 1987). In general, any transaction by which stock is offered to individuals or to the general public, is a "sale" or "offer to sell." Bradley v. Hullander, 272 S.C. 6, 249 S.E.2d 486 (1978).

27.    Section 35-1-102(27): "Securities and Exchange Commission." This definition is new.

28.    Section 35-1-102(28): "Securities Commissioner." This definition follows existing law.

29.    Section 35-1-102(29): "Security." This definition replaces prior law found at Section 35-1-20(15). The new definition uses the broader term "fractional undivided interests in oil, gas or other mineral rights" in lieu of prior law's formulation of "certificate of interest or participation in an oil, gas, or mining title or lease." Interests in viatical settlements are considered to be securities, rejecting the holding in SEC v. Life Partners, Inc., 87 F.3d 536 (D.C. Cir. 1996), reh'g denied , 102 F.3d 587 (1996), which held that viatical settlements may not be investment contracts if decisions affecting the value of the settlement predate the sale. South Carolina law had been silent on the viatical issue. South Carolina changed subsection (29)(E) to clarify that limited partnership interests and a limited liability company may be a "security", but that a viatical investment is now considered to be a "security." The definition of a viatical settlement will be resolved by reference to statutes and Department of Insurance rules and regulations governing that industry. South Carolina looks for guidance in defining a "security" to those cases interpreting the federal Securities Act of 1933. McGaha v. Mosley, 283 S.C. 268, 322 S.E.2d 462 (Ct. App. 1984); Garrett v. Snedigar, 293 S.C. 176, 359 S.E.2d 283 (Ct. App. 1987). A federal court decision has stated that the South Carolina decisions perceive no distinction between the state and federal definitions of a "security." Faircloth v. Jackie Fine Arts, Inc., 682 F. Supp. 837 (D.S.C. 1988). South Carolina follows the federal approach of concentrating on economic reality rather than the form of a transaction in determining whether a security is involved. Garrett v. Snedigar, 293 S.C. 176, 359 S.E.2d 283 (Ct. App. 1987) citing Tcherepnin v. Knight, 389 U.S. 332, 336 (1967). Garrett remanded for further findings whether or not what was labeled a "general partnership" interest was in fact a "limited partnership" interest, as the trial court held, given the measures of control retained by the supposedly passive partners. The Fourth Circuit Court of Appeals has held that limited partnership interests are a security where the general partners are active managers and the limited partners are passive. Kosnoski v. Bruce, 699 F.2d 944 (4th Cir. 1982). Stock in a closely held corporation has been held to be a security if it has the usual characteristics of stock. Carver v. Blanford, 288 S.C. 309, 342 S.E.2d 406 (1986). A written assignment of an interest in profits is a certificate of interest or participation in a profit sharing agreement and is therefore a security. McGaha v. Mosley, 283 S.C. 268, 322 S.E.2d 461 (Ct. App. 1984). The same result would be reached under this new chapter. In determining whether a bank loan note was a "security," the federal District Court has employed the "commercial versus investment" test to determine whether the transaction was a commercial loan or an investment by the bank. S.C. Nat'l Bank v. Darmstadter, 622 F. Supp. 226 (D.S.C. 1985).

30.    Section 35-1-102(30): "Self Regulatory organization." This definition is new.

31.    Section 35-1-102(31): "Sign." This definition is new.

32.    Section 35-1-102(32): "State." This definition is substantially similar to prior law found at Section 35-1-20(16).

Section 35-1-103.    'Securities Act of 1933' (15 U.S.C. Section 77a et seq.), 'Securities Exchange Act of 1934' (15 U.S.C. Section 78a et seq.), 'Public Utility Holding Company Act of 1935'(15 U.S.C. Section 79 et seq.), 'Investment Company Act of 1940' (15 U.S.C. Section 80a-1 et seq.), 'Investment Advisers Act of 1940' (15 U.S.C. Section 80b-1 et seq.), 'Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974' (29 U.S.C. Section 1001 et seq.), 'National Housing Act' (12 U.S.C. Section 1701 et seq.), 'Commodity Exchange Act' (7 U.S.C. Section 1 et seq.), 'Internal Revenue Code' (26 U.S.C. Section 1 et seq.), 'Securities Investor Protection Act of 1970' (15 U.S.C. Section 78aaa et seq.), 'Securities Litigation Uniform Standards Act of 1998' (112 Stat. 3227), 'Small Business Investment Act of 1958' (15 U.S.C. Section 661 et seq.), and 'Electronic Signatures in Global and National Commerce Act' (15 U.S.C. Section 7001 et seq.) mean those statutes and the rules and regulations adopted under those statutes, as in effect on the date of enactment of this chapter, or as later amended.

Official Comments

Prior Provisions: 1956 Act Section 401(k); RUSA Section 101(15).

1.    There are a large number of references to other laws in this chapter, particularly to the federal securities laws identified in Section 103, and to rules adopted by the Securities and Exchange Commission under those laws. One of the main objectives of this chapter is to take account of those provisions in the federal laws that are preemptive, and to coordinate with other, nonpreemptive provisions of the federal laws where coordination between federal and state securities law is in the public interest.

2.    Section 12(d) of the Uniform Statute and Rule Construction Act, adopted by NCCUSL in 1995, provides: "A statute or rule that incorporates by reference a statute or rule of another jurisdiction does not incorporate a later enactment or adoption or amendment of the other statute or rule." Nevertheless, it is not uncommon for States to permit later amendments to statutes and rules referenced in enacted legislation to become automatically effective. In those states the final bracketed language in this Section should be included in the chapter.

3.    In those states which do not permit automatic effectiveness of later amendments and that follow Section 12(d) of the Uniform Statute and Rule Construction Act, this problem has been addressed by either giving the administrator the power to update by rule or the duty to notify the legislature when amendment is necessary. When the legislature notification approach is adopted, to prevent a gap period, the administrator might be given the power to act by rule until the legislature has acted.

4.    After enactment, amendments to a preemptive federal statute, to rules adopted by a federal agency under a preemptive provision of a federal statute, or to amendments to such rules should be enforced in all states under the Supremacy Clause of the United States Constitution. A number of such references are in this chapter.

South Carolina Reporter's Comments

This provision is a substantial revision of prior law found at Section 35-1-20(14). The list of federal statutes is updated and also broadened to coordinate with nonpreemptive federal statutes and to take account of preemptive statutes. The new provision also includes amendments adopted after the effective date of this chapter.

Section 35-1-104.    A reference in this chapter to an agency or department of the United States is also a reference to a successor agency or department.

Official Comment

No Prior Provision.

South Carolina Reporter's Comments

This provision is new.

Section 35-1-105.    This chapter modifies, limits, and supersedes the federal Electronic Signatures in Global and National Commerce Act, but does not modify, limit, or supersede Section 101(c) of that act (15 U.S.C. Section 7001(c)) or authorize electronic delivery of any of the notices described in Section 103(b) of that act (15 U.S.C. Section 7003(b)). This chapter authorizes the filing of records and signatures, when specified by provisions of this chapter or by a rule adopted or order issued under this chapter, in a manner consistent with Section 104(a) of that act (15 U.S.C. Section 7004(a)).

Official Comment

No Prior Provision. The purpose of this Section is to permit the filing of electronic signatures and electronic records.

South Carolina Reporter's Comments

This provision is new.

Article 2

Exemptions From Registration of Securities

Official Comments

Section 201 includes exempt securities and Section 202 includes exempt transactions. Both exempt securities and exempt transactions are exempt from the securities registration, notice filing requirement of Section 302, and the filing of sales literature Section 504 of this chapter. Neither Section 201 nor Section 202 provides an exemption from the chapter's antifraud provisions in Article 5, nor the broker-dealer, agent, investment adviser, or investment adviser registration requirements in Article 4.

A Section 201 exempt security retains its exemption when initially issued and in subsequent trading.

A Section 202 transaction exemption must be established for each transaction.

Neither the exempt security nor the transaction exemptions are meant to be mutually exclusive. A security or transaction may qualify for two or more exemptions.

Article 2 is not available to any security, transaction, or offer that, although in technical compliance with a specific section in Article 2, is part of an unlawful plan or scheme to evade the registration provisions of Article 3. In such cases registration is required. Cf. Prelim. Note 6 to Regulation D adopted under the Securities Act of 1933.

South Carolina Reporter's Comments

Article 2 addresses exemptions from registration. Generally, changes in prior law address the preemption by NSMIA or the need for modernization of prior exemptions. There is, generally, a retention or broadening of existing exemptions. South Carolina has previously addressed the NSMIA exemptions in its 1997 amendments, so the impact of those is considerably less than in those states which retain the 1956 Act without amendment. The Official Comments reflect the legal and policy decisions underlying Article 2's provisions.

Section 35-1-201 identifies exempt securities; Section 35-1-202 identifies exempt transactions. The Official Comments explain that a particular security or offering may qualify as exempt under both sections. South Carolina narrowly construes exemptions to registration under existing case law, McGaha v. Mosley, 283 S.C. 268, 273, 322 S.E.2d 461, 464 (Ct. App. 1984). Such construction would remain appropriate under this chapter.

It is important to note that exemption from registration does not equate with exemption from either civil or regulatory liability under the antifraud provisions contained in Article 5. In addition, Article 2 exemptions are not available where a security, transaction or offer, even though in technical compliance with Article 2's language, is part of an unlawful plan or scheme to evade Article 3's registration provisions.

Section 35-1-201.    The following securities are exempt from the requirements of Sections 35-1-301 through 35-1-306 and 35-1-504:

(1)    a security, including a revenue obligation or a separate security as defined in Rule 131 (17 C.F.R. 230.131) adopted under the Securities Act of 1933, issued, insured, or guaranteed by the United States; by a State; by a political subdivision of a State; by a public authority, agency, or instrumentality of one or more States; by a political subdivision of one or more States; or by a person controlled or supervised by and acting as an instrumentality of the United States under authority granted by the Congress; or a certificate of deposit for any of the foregoing;

(2)    a security issued, insured, or guaranteed by a foreign government with which the United States maintains diplomatic relations, or any of its political subdivisions, if the security is recognized as a valid obligation by the issuer, insurer, or guarantor;

(3)    a security issued by and representing or that will represent an interest in or a direct obligation of, or be guaranteed by:

(A)    an international banking institution;

(B)    a banking institution organized under the laws of the United States; a member bank of the Federal Reserve System; or a depository institution a substantial portion of the business of which consists or will consist of receiving deposits or share accounts that are insured to the maximum amount authorized by statute by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, the National Credit Union Share Insurance Fund, or a successor authorized by federal law or exercising fiduciary powers that are similar to those permitted for national banks under the authority of the Comptroller of Currency pursuant to Section 1 of Public Law 87-722 (12 U.S.C. Section 92a); or

(C)    any other depository institution, unless by rule or order the Securities Commissioner proceeds under Section 35-1-204;

(4)    a security issued by and representing an interest in, or a debt of, or insured or guaranteed by, an insurance company authorized to do business in this State;

(5)    a security issued or guaranteed by a railroad, other common carrier, public utility, or public utility holding company that is:

(A)    regulated in respect to its rates and charges by the United States or a State;

(B)    regulated in respect to the issuance or guarantee of the security by the United States, a State, Canada, or a Canadian province or territory; or

(C)    a public utility holding company registered under the Public Utility Holding Company Act of 1935 or a subsidiary of such a registered holding company within the meaning of that act;

(6)    a federal covered security specified in Section 18(b)(1) of the Securities Act of 1933 (15 U.S.C. Section 77r(b)(1)) or by rule adopted under that provision or a security listed or approved for listing on another securities market specified by rule under this chapter; a put or a call option contract; a warrant; a subscription right on or with respect to such securities; or an option or similar derivative security on a security or an index of securities or foreign currencies issued by a clearing agency registered under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 and listed or designated for trading on a national securities exchange, a facility of a national securities exchange, or a facility of a national securities association registered under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 or an offer or sale, of the underlying security in connection with the offer, sale, or exercise of an option or other security that was exempt when the option or other security was written or issued; or an option or a derivative security designated by the Securities and Exchange Commission under Section 9(b) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (15 U.S.C. Section 78i(b));

(7)    a security issued by a person organized and operated exclusively for religious, educational, benevolent, fraternal, charitable, social, athletic, or reformatory purposes, or as a chamber of commerce, and not for pecuniary profit, no part of the net earnings of which inures to the benefit of a private stockholder or other person, or a security of a company that is excluded from the definition of an investment company under Section 3(c)(10)(B) of the Investment Company Act of 1940 (15 U.S.C. Section 80a-3(c)(10)(B)); except that with respect to the offer or sale of a note, bond, debenture, or other evidence of indebtedness issued by such a person, a rule may be adopted under this chapter limiting the availability of this exemption by classifying securities, persons, and transactions, imposing different requirements for different classes, specifying with respect to paragraph (B) the scope of the exemption and the grounds for denial or suspension, and requiring an issuer:

(A)    to file a notice specifying the material terms of the proposed offer or sale and copies of any proposed sales and advertising literature to be used and provide that the exemption becomes effective if the Securities Commissioner does not disallow the exemption within the period established by the rule;

(B)    to file a request for exemption authorization for which a rule under this chapter may specify the scope of the exemption, the requirement of an offering statement, the filing of sales and advertising literature, the filing of consent to service of process complying with Section 35-1-611, and grounds for denial or suspension of the exemption; or

(C)    to register under Section 35-1-304;

(8)    a member's or owner's interest in, or a retention certificate or like security given in lieu of a cash patronage dividend issued by, a cooperative organized and operated as a nonprofit membership cooperative under the cooperative laws of a State, but not a member's or owner's interest, retention certificate, or like security sold to persons other than bona fide members of the cooperative; and

(9)    an equipment trust certificate with respect to equipment leased or conditionally sold to a person, if any security issued by the person would be exempt under this section or would be a federal covered security under Section 18(b)(1) of the Securities Act of 1933 (15 U.S.C. Section 77r(b)(1)).

Official Comments

Prior Provisions: 1956 Act Section 402(a); RUSA Section 401(b).

1.    Section 201(1): United States government and municipal securities: Prior Provisions: 1956 Act Section 402(a)(1); RUSA Section 401(b)(1). This exemption generally follows the 1956 Act except that it adds securities "insured" by a specified government to those "issued" or "guaranteed." RUSA, in contrast, also addressed foreign governments, which in this chapter are treated separately in Section 201(2). Rule 131 issued under the Securities Act of 1933 defines separate securities issued under governmental obligations.

A significant minority of states have excluded from the Section 201(1) exemption industrial revenue bonds. Interest on these securities is solely repayable from revenues received from a nongovernmental industrial or commercial enterprise. Typically this exclusion will not operate if (A) the payments are made or unconditionally guaranteed by a person whose securities are exempt from registration under Section 18(b)(1) of the Securities Act of 1933, or (B) in accordance with a rule under this [chapter], the issuer first files a notice in a record specifying the terms of the proposed offer or sale and a copy of the offering statement and the administrator does not disallow the exemption within the time period established by the rule.

2.    Section 201(2): Foreign government securities: Prior Provisions: 1956 Act Section 402(a)(2); RUSA Section 401(b)(2). The 1956 Act, as amended, and RUSA both reached foreign governments as specified in Section 201(2) and separately treated "a security issued, insured, or guaranteed by Canada, a Canadian province or territory, a political subdivision of Canada or a Canadian province or territory, an agency or corporate or other instrumentality of one or more of the foregoing." The separate treatment of Canadian securities is largely redundant and has been eliminated from this section.

3.    Section 201(3): Depository institution and international banking institution securities: Prior Provision: RUSA 401(b)(3). Section 402(a)(3) of the 1956 Act exempts specified bank and similar depository institutions; Section 402(a)(4) exempts specified savings and loan and similar thrift institution securities; and Section 402(a)(6) exempts specified credit union securities. RUSA Section 401(b)(3) combines the three types of depository institutions into a common definition (see RUSA Section 101(13)) which are adopted in this chapter as Sections 102(3) and 102(5)) and a common exemption (see RUSA Section 401(b)(3)) which is adopted in this subsection.

Banks specified in Section 3(a)(2) of the Securities Act of 1933 issue federal covered securities under Section 18(b)(4)(C) of the Securities Act of 1933. Section 201(3)(C) applies to securities issued by depository institutions without depository insurance. Under Section 204, the administrator will have the ability to revoke or limit this exemption.

4.    Section 201(4): Insurance company securities: Prior Provisions: 1956 Act Section 402(a)(5); RUSA Section 401(b)(4). The issuance, insurance, or guarantee of securities by an insurance company is extensively regulated by state insurance commissions or other state agencies.

Under this chapter insurance, endowment policies, or annuity contracts under which an insurance company promises to pay fixed sums are excluded from the definition of a security in Section 102(29)(B).

Unless brackets are removed from the words "or variable" in Section 102(29)(B), a variable annuity or other variable insurance product would be considered a security under this chapter and under federal securities law. See SEC v. Variable Annuity Life Ins. Co. of Am., 359 U.S. 65 (1959); SEC v. United Benefit Life Ins. Co., 387 U.S. 202 (1967).

A variable annuity or other variable insurance product issued by an investment company registered with the Securities and Exchange Commission under the Investment Company Act of 1940 would be a "federal covered security," see Section 102(7). See Lander v. Hartford Life & Annuity Ins. Co., 251 F.3d 101 (2d Cir. 2001).

A variable annuity or other variable insurance product not issued by a registered investment company would be exempted by Section 201(4), but would be subject to the antifraud provisions in Article 5.

5.    Section 201(5): Common carrier and public utility securities: Prior Provisions: 1956 Act Section 401(a)(7); RUSA Section 401(b)(5). Both the 1956 Act and RUSA include references, omitted here, to the Interstate Commerce Commission, whose enabling legislation subsequently was repealed. Public utility holding companies covered by this exemption are subject both to the Public Utility Holding Company Act and to state or Canadian utility regulation.

6.    Section 201(6):    Certain options and rights: No Prior Provision. The 1956 Act Section 402(a)(8) provided an exemption for securities listed on the New York, American, Midwest (now Chicago), or other designated stock exchanges, senior or substantially equal securities of the same issuer listed on the exchange and any security covered by listed or approved subscription rights or warrants, or any warrant or right to purchase or subscribe to any security exempted by Section 402(a)(8).

RUSA essentially retained this exemption in Section 401(b)(7) and added securities designated for inclusion in the National Market System by the National Association of Securities Dealers in Section 401(b)(8) and specified options issued by a clearing agency registered under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 in Section 401(b)(9).

In 1996 Congress enacted the National Securities Markets Improvement Act and provided in Section 18(b)(1) that securities listed on the New York, American or Nasdaq Stock Exchange, or designated by rule of the Securities and Exchange Commission, as well as any security of the same issuer that is equal in seniority or senior to any of these securities will be a federal covered security. Under Rule 146 the SEC has designated as federal covered securities under Section 18(b)(1) Tier I of the Pacific Exchange; Tier I of the Philadelphia Stock Exchange; and The Chicago Board Options Exchange on condition that the relevant listing standards continue to be substantially similar to those of the New York, American, or Nasdaq stock markets. See Reporter's Note to Section 102(7). A federal covered security subject to Section 18(b)(1) of the Securities Act of 1933 will not be subject to the securities registration requirements of Sections 301 and 303 through 306.

The exemption in Section 201(6) addresses specified options, warrants, and rights that are not federal covered securities under Section 18(b)(1) of the Securities Act of 1933, but generally would have been exempted under RUSA. The 1956 Act, which was narrower, was drafted before the computerized Nasdaq stock market began trading the National Market List and the development of standardized options markets.

The final clause of Section 201(6) makes clear that any offer or sale of the underlying security that occurs as a result of the offer or sale of an option or other derivative security exempted under this provision or as the result of the exercise of the option or other derivative security, is covered by the exemption if the option met the terms of the exemption at the time such derivative security was written (that is, sold) or issued. The sale of the underlying security when an option is exercised would be exempt even if the underlying security is not at that time subject to any exemption under the chapter. This is consistent with existing precedent under federal law suggesting that the legality of the sale of an underlying security when an option is exercised should be determined by the status of the security at the time the option was written rather than at the time of exercise. See, e.g., H. Kook & Co., Inc. v. Scheinman, Hochstin & Trotta, Inc., 414 F.2d 93 (2d Cir. 1969). Any transaction in an underlying security that results from the offer, sale, or exercise of any derivative security issued by a registered clearing agency and traded on a national securities exchange or association is exempt if the derivative security when written was exempt under Section 201(6).

The Securities and Exchange Commission has adopted Rule 9b-1 under Section 9(b).

7.    Section 201(7): Nonprofit organization securities: Prior Provision: Section 3(a)(4) of the Securities Act of 1933.

Section 402(a)(9) of the 1956 Act and Section 401(b)(10) of RUSA exempt specified nonprofit securities. Both are modeled on Section 3(a)(4) of the Securities Act, which was subsequently amended.

Securities issued under Section 3(a)(4) of the Securities Act of 1933 are not treated as federal covered securities in Section 18(b)(4)(C), although a separate Section 3(a)(13) exemption which addresses certain church plan securities are federal covered securities under Section 18(b)(4)(C).

RUSA included an optional notice and review requirement for nonprofit securities in Section 401(b)(10) "if at least ten days before a sale of the security the person has filed with the administrator a notice setting forth the material terms of the proposed sale and copies of any sales and advertising literature to be used and the administrator by order does not disallow the exemption within the next five full business days."

The nonprofit exemption is of particular concern to state securities administrators. See, e.g., State Regulators Announce Dramatic Rise in Religious Scams; Tens of Thousands Lured, 33 Sec. Reg. & L. Rep. (BNA) 1189 (2001).

Under Section 6 of the Philanthropy Protection Act, Congress preempted application of the registration provisions of state securities laws to issuance of securities covered by Section 3(c)(10) of the Investment Company Act of 1940 unless states acted within three years of enactment (December 1998) to pass special state legislation canceling federal preemption. Ten states enacted such legislation. Those states may preserve this treatment of Section 3(c)(10) securities by deleting from Section 201(7) the phrase "or a security of a company that is excluded from the definition of an investment company under Section 3(c)(10)(B) of the Investment Company Act of 1940."

Section 201(7) provides statutory authority for the states to adopt rules with respect to notes, bonds, debentures and other evidences of indebtedness issued by nonprofit organizations. Each state may adopt different rules tailored for various types of nonprofit debt offerings, (e.g., local church bond offerings, national church bond offerings, church extension funds, charitable gift annuities). For states that do not wish to provide an automatic exemption from registration for a particular type of nonprofit debt instrument or offering, Section 201(7) creates three categories of regulatory review that may be required by rule: (a) exemption by notice filing, (b) exemption by state authorization, and (c) registration by qualification. These categories are consistent with the manner in which many states currently review different types of nonprofit debt securities. See Horner & Makens, Securities Regulation of Religious and Other Nonprofit Organizations, 27 Stetson L. Rev. 473 (1997).

8.    Section 201(8): Cooperatives: Prior Provision: RUSA Section 401(b)(13). Section 201(8) is derived from RUSA Section 401(b)(13) which was included in that act after a number of states had adopted exemptions for securities issued by cooperatives. Section 201(8) is not intended to be available if securities are offered or sold to the public generally.

The 1956 Act Section 402(a)(12) had instead provided: "insert any desired exemption for cooperatives." The Reporter for the 1956 Act had found such sharp variation among the 18 states that then had adopted a cooperative exemption that "no common pattern can be found." Louis Loss, Commentary on the Uniform Securities Act 118 (1976).

9.    Section 201(9): Equipment trust certificates: Prior Provision: RUSA Section 401(b)(6). The Securities Act of 1933 Section 3(a)(6) includes a narrower exemption for railroad equipment trusts. Section 201(9) follows RUSA. The Official Comment to RUSA Section 401(b)(6) explained:

The new paragraph (b)(6) reflects the extensive development of equipment lease financing through leveraged leases, conditional sales, and other devices. The underlying premise is that if the securities of the person using such a financing device would be exempt under some other paragraph of Section 401, the equipment trust certificate or other security issued to acquire the property in question also is exempt.

South Carolina Reporter's Comments

1.    Section 35-1-201(1): This exemption for federal, state, and other public agency securities generally follows prior law, with the exception noted in the Official Comments for the addition of securities "insured" by a specified government to those "issued" or "guaranteed." South Carolina has followed the majority of states that have included industrial revenue bonds within this exemption.

2.    Section 35-1-201(2): This exemption for foreign government securities makes no substantive change in existing law.

3.    Section 35-1-201(3): This exemption combines three separate exemptions under existing law, as noted in the Official Comments. The Securities Commissioner has the ability to revoke or limit this exception.

4.    Section 35-1-201(4): No prior provision. Variable annuity products are defined as a "security" in Section 35-1-102(29)(B), but are exempt from registration either because they qualify as a "federal covered security" or by this exemption.

5.    Section 35-1-201(5): No substantial change in existing law.

6.    Section 35-1-201(6): This exemption for "federally covered securities" tracks the preemption in NSMIA. It also exempts certain options, warrants, and rights not defined as "federally covered securities" in deference to the development of standardized options markets.

7.    Section 35-1-201(7): Existing law grants an automatic exemption for specified nonprofit securities. This chapter allows that to continue, unless the Securities Commissioner adopts a rule to require regulatory review in one of three categories, as noted in the Official Comments: (a) notice filing, (b) state authorization, and (c) qualification under Section 304.

8.    Section 35-1-201(8): This exemption for securities issued by cooperatives clarifies that the resale to nonmembers of a cooperative security is not subject to this exemption.

9.    Section 35-1-201(9): No prior provision.

Section 35-1-202.    The following transactions are exempt from the requirements of Sections 35-1-301 through 35-1-306 and 35-1-504:

(1)    an isolated nonissuer transaction, whether effected by or through a broker-dealer or not;

(2)    a nonissuer transaction by or through a broker-dealer registered, or exempt from registration under this chapter, and a resale transaction by a sponsor of a unit investment trust registered under the Investment Company Act of 1940, in a security of a class that has been outstanding in the hands of the public for at least ninety days, if, at the date of the transaction:

(A)    the issuer of the security is engaged in business, the issuer is not in the organizational stage or in bankruptcy or receivership, and the issuer is not a blank check, blind pool, or shell company that has no specific business plan or purpose or has indicated that its primary business plan is to engage in a merger or combination of the business with, or an acquisition of, an unidentified person;

(B)    the security is sold at a price reasonably related to its current market price;

(C)    the security does not constitute the whole or part of an unsold allotment to, or a subscription or participation by, the broker-dealer as an underwriter of the security or a redistribution;

(D)    a nationally recognized securities manual or its electronic equivalent designated by rule adopted or order issued under this chapter or a record filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission that is publicly available contains:

(i)        a description of the business and operations of the issuer;

(ii)    the names of the issuer's executive officers and the names of the issuer's directors, if any;

(iii)    an audited balance sheet of the issuer as of a date within 18 months before the date of the transaction or, in the case of a reorganization or merger when the parties to the reorganization or merger each had an audited balance sheet, a pro forma balance sheet for the combined organization; and

(iv)    an audited income statement for each of the issuer's two immediately previous fiscal years or for the period of existence of the issuer, whichever is shorter, or, in the case of a reorganization or merger when each party to the reorganization or merger had audited income statements, a pro forma income statement; and

(E)    any one of the following requirements is met:

(i)        the issuer of the security has a class of equity securities listed on a national securities exchange registered under Section 6 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 or designated for trading on the National Association of Securities Dealers Automated Quotation System;

(ii)    the issuer of the security is a unit investment trust registered under the Investment Company Act of 1940;

(iii)    the issuer of the security, including its predecessors, has been engaged in continuous business for at least three years; or

(iv)    the issuer of the security has total assets of at least two million dollars based on an audited balance sheet as of a date within 18 months before the date of the transaction or, in the case of a reorganization or merger when the parties to the reorganization or merger each had such an audited balance sheet, a pro forma balance sheet for the combined organization;

(3)    a nonissuer transaction by or through a broker-dealer registered or exempt from registration under this chapter in a security of a foreign issuer that is a margin security defined in regulations or rules adopted by the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System;

(4)    a nonissuer transaction by or through a broker-dealer registered or exempt from registration under this chapter in an outstanding security if the guarantor of the security files reports with the Securities and Exchange Commission under the reporting requirements of Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (15 U.S.C. 78m or 78o(d));

(5)    a nonissuer transaction by or through a broker-dealer registered or exempt from registration under this chapter in a security that:

(A)    is rated at the time of the transaction by a nationally recognized statistical rating organization in one of its four highest rating categories; or

(B)    has a fixed maturity or a fixed interest or dividend, if:

(i)        a default has not occurred during the current fiscal year or within the three previous fiscal years or during the existence of the issuer and any predecessor if less than three fiscal years, in the payment of principal, interest, or dividends on the security; and

(ii)    the issuer is engaged in business, is not in the organizational stage or in bankruptcy or receivership, and is not and has not been within the previous twelve months a blank check, blind pool, or shell company that has no specific business plan or purpose or has indicated that its primary business plan is to engage in a merger or combination of the business with, or an acquisition of, an unidentified person;

(6)    a nonissuer transaction by or through a broker-dealer registered or exempt from registration under this chapter effecting an unsolicited order or offer to purchase;

(7)    a nonissuer transaction executed by a bona fide pledgee without the purpose of evading this chapter;

(8)    a nonissuer transaction by a federal covered investment adviser with investments under management in excess of one hundred million dollars acting in the exercise of discretionary authority in a signed record for the account of others;

(9)    a transaction in a security, whether or not the security or transaction is otherwise exempt, in exchange for one or more bona fide outstanding securities, claims, or property interests, or partly in such exchange and partly for cash, if the terms and conditions of the issuance and exchange or the delivery and exchange and the fairness of the terms and conditions have been approved by the Securities Commissioner after a hearing;

(10)    a transaction between the issuer or other person on whose behalf the offering is made and an underwriter, or among underwriters;

(11)    a transaction in a note, bond, debenture, or other evidence of indebtedness secured by a mortgage or other security agreement if:

(A)    the note, bond, debenture, or other evidence of indebtedness is offered and sold with the mortgage or other security agreement as a unit;

(B)    a general solicitation or general advertisement of the transaction is not made; and

(C)    a commission or other remuneration is not paid or given, directly or indirectly, to a person not registered under this chapter as a broker-dealer or as an agent;

(12)    a transaction by an executor, administrator of an estate, sheriff, marshal, receiver, trustee in bankruptcy, guardian, or conservator;

(13)    a sale or offer to sell to:

(A)    an institutional investor;

(B)    a federal covered investment adviser; or

(C)    any other person exempted by rule adopted or order issued under this chapter;

(14)    a sale or an offer to sell securities by or on behalf of an issuer, if the transaction is part of a single issue in which:

(A)    not more than twenty-five purchasers are present in this State during any twelve consecutive months, other than those designated in paragraph (13);

(B)    a general solicitation or general advertising is not made in connection with the offer to sell or sale of the securities;

(C)    a commission or other remuneration is not paid or given, directly or indirectly, to a person other than a broker-dealer registered under this chapter or an agent registered under this chapter for soliciting a prospective purchaser in this State; and

(D)    the issuer reasonably believes that all the purchasers in this State, other than those designated in paragraph (13), are purchasing for investment;

(15)    a transaction under an offer to existing security holders of the issuer, including persons that at the date of the transaction are holders of convertible securities, options, or warrants, if a commission or other remuneration, other than a standby commission, is not paid or given, directly or indirectly, for soliciting a security holder in this State;

(16)    an offer to sell, but not a sale, of a security not exempt from registration under the Securities Act of 1933 if:

(A)    a registration or offering statement or similar record as required under the Securities Act of 1933 has been filed, but is not effective, or the offer is made in compliance with Rule 165 adopted under the Securities Act of 1933 (17 C.F.R. 230.165); and

(B)    a stop order of which the offeror is aware has not been issued against the offeror by the Securities Commissioner or the Securities and Exchange Commission, and an audit, inspection, or proceeding that is public and that may culminate in a stop order is not known by the offeror to be pending;

(17)    an offer to sell, but not a sale, of a security exempt from registration under the Securities Act of 1933 if:

(A)    a registration statement has been filed under this chapter, but is not effective;

(B)    a solicitation of interest is provided in a record to offerees in compliance with a rule adopted by the Securities Commissioner under this chapter; and

(C)    a stop order of which the offeror is aware has not been issued by the Securities Commissioner under this chapter and an audit, inspection, or proceeding that may culminate in a stop order is not known by the offeror to be pending;

(18)    a transaction involving the distribution of the securities of an issuer to the security holders of another person in connection with a merger, consolidation, exchange of securities, sale of assets, or other reorganization to which the issuer, or its parent or subsidiary and the other person, or its parent or subsidiary, are parties;

(19)    a rescission offer, sale, or purchase under Section 35-1-510;

(20)    an offer or sale of a security to a person not a resident of this State and not present in this State if the offer or sale does not constitute a violation of the laws of the State or foreign jurisdiction in which the offeree or purchaser is present and is not part of an unlawful plan or scheme to evade this chapter;

(21)    employees' stock purchase, savings, option, profit-sharing, pension, or similar employees' benefit plan, including any securities, plan interests, and guarantees issued under a compensatory benefit plan or compensation contract, contained in a record, established by the issuer, its parents, its majority-owned subsidiaries, or the majority-owned subsidiaries of the issuer's parent for the participation of their employees including offers or sales of such securities to:

(A)    directors; general partners; trustees, if the issuer is a business trust; officers; consultants; and advisors;

(B)    family members who acquire such securities from those persons through gifts or domestic relations orders;

(C)    former employees, directors, general partners, trustees, officers, consultants, and advisors if those individuals were employed by or providing services to the issuer when the securities were offered; and

(D)    insurance agents who are exclusive insurance agents of the issuer, or the issuer's subsidiaries or parents, or who derive more than 50 percent of their annual income from those organizations;

(22)    a transaction involving:

(A)    a stock dividend or equivalent equity distribution, whether the corporation or other business organization distributing the dividend or equivalent equity distribution is the issuer or not, if nothing of value is given by stockholders or other equity holders for the dividend or equivalent equity distribution other than the surrender of a right to a cash or property dividend if each stockholder or other equity holder may elect to take the dividend or equivalent equity distribution in cash, property, or stock;

(B)    an act incident to a judicially approved reorganization in which a security is issued in exchange for one or more outstanding securities, claims, or property interests, or partly in such exchange and partly for cash; or

(C)    the solicitation of tenders of securities by an offeror in a tender offer in compliance with Rule 162 adopted under the Securities Act of 1933 (17 C.F.R. 230.162); or

(23)    a nonissuer transaction in an outstanding security by or through a broker-dealer registered or exempt from registration under this chapter, if the issuer is a reporting issuer in a foreign jurisdiction designated by this paragraph or by rule adopted or order issued under this chapter; has been subject to continuous reporting requirements in the foreign jurisdiction for not less than 180 days before the transaction; and the security is listed on the foreign jurisdiction's securities exchange that has been designated by this paragraph or by rule adopted or order issued under this chapter, or is a security of the same issuer that is of senior or substantially equal rank to the listed security or is a warrant or right to purchase or subscribe to any of the foregoing. For purposes of this paragraph, Canada, together with its provinces and territories, is a designated foreign jurisdiction and The Toronto Stock Exchange, Inc., is a designated securities exchange. After an administrative hearing, the Securities Commissioner, by rule adopted or order issued under this chapter, may revoke the designation of a securities exchange under this paragraph, if the Securities Commissioner finds that revocation is necessary or appropriate in the public interest and for the protection of investors.

Official Comments

Prior Provisions: 1956 Act Section 402(b); RUSA Section 402.

1.    Sections 202(1) through (8) are available only for nonissuer transactions. An issuer selling securities in an initial public offering or other offering may not rely on Sections 202(1) through (8). A nonissuer, however, can rely on any issuer transaction exemption such as Section 202(13), when the exemption would be applicable to a nonissuer. The term "nonissuer transaction or nonissuer distribution" is defined in Section 102(18); the term "issuer" is defined in Section 102(17).

2.    Section 202(1): Isolated nonissuer transactions: Prior Provisions: 1956 Act Section 402(b)(1); RUSA Section 402(1). The term "isolated transaction" is not defined in this chapter, but left to the states to develop. Historically under state law there has been somewhat varied case law development of the term "isolated transactions." See, e.g., Blinder, Robinson & Co., Inc. v. Goettsch, 403 N.W.2d 772 (Iowa 1987) (isolated nonissuer transaction exemption is not unconstitutionally vague); Allen v. Schauf, 449 P.2d 1010 (Kan. 1969) (regulation defined isolated transactions to not exceed four persons solicited in a twelve month period); Nelson v. State, 355 P.2d 413, 420 (Okla. Ct. Crim. App. 1960) ("[a]n isolated sale means one standing alone, disconnected from any other"); see generally 1 Louis Loss & Joel Seligman, Securities Regulation 125-130 (3d ed. rev. 1998).

In general this subsection is intended to cover the occasional sale by a person. It would not exempt multiple or successive transactions by a person or group, whether those sales are sufficient to constitute a "distribution" as that term is used for purposes of the federal securities laws, see 2 Louis Loss & Joel Seligman, Securities Regulation 1138.50-1138.52 (3d ed. rev. 1999), or merely too frequent to be considered "isolated" under the relevant state law.

Limited issuer offering transactions are separately addressed in Section 202(14).

3.    Section 202(2): Nonissuer transactions in specified outstanding securities: Prior Provisions: 1956 Act Section 402(b)(2); RUSA Sections 402(3) and (4). This Section represents a modernization of the securities manual exemption which was included in both the 1956 Act and RUSA. NASAA recommended an amendment to the 1956 Act Section 402(b) after discussion with the Securities Industry Association and others in the securities industry. This Section generally follows the NASAA amendment.

Rule 419 issued under the Securities Act of 1933 defines a "blank check company" to be a company that "is a development stage company that has no specific business plan or purpose or has indicated that its business plan is to engage in a merger or acquisition with an unidentified company or companies, or other entity or person." A "blind pool" is similar and would involve an investment in a blank check or other entity with no identified business plan or purpose. A "shell company" is also similar and would involve an entity which, to date, has no significant business assets, plan, or purpose.

4.    Section 202(3): Nonissuer transactions in specified foreign transactions: No Prior Provision. The NASAA recommendation that was the basis of Section 202(2) also included specified foreign nonissuer transactions subject to a manual exemption when there was disclosure of the issuer's officers and directors in the issuer's country of domicile. This subsection uses margin securities as an alternative approach to identify sufficiently seasoned foreign securities. Margin securities are required to be in compliance with Regulation T which was adopted by the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System.

5.    Section 202(4): Nonissuer transactions in securities subject to Securities Exchange Act reporting: Prior Provision: RUSA Section 402(2). RUSA added this exemption to authorize nonissuer secondary trading in the securities of issuers that were subject to the periodic reporting requirements of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934. To bar immediate secondary trading in nonregistered initial public offerings, there was a further requirement that these securities be subject to the reporting requirements of Sections 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 for not less than 90 days. Section 202(4) only covers the guarantor because if the issuer of the security is a reporting company under Sections 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, the transaction is preempted by Section 18(b)(4)(A) of the Securities Act of 1933.

Section 18(b)(4)(A) of the National Securities Markets Improvement Act of 1996 defines nonissuer transactions under Section 4(1) of the Securities Act of 1933 ("transactions by persons other than an issuer, underwriter, or dealer") as "federal covered securities," see Section 102(7), if the issuer files reports with the Securities and Exchange Commission under Sections 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934. Under Section 18(a) of the Securities Act of 1933 no state statute, rule, order, or other administrative action with respect to registration of securities or reporting requirements may apply to a federal covered security. To harmonize Section 202(4) with Sections 18(a) and 18(b)(4)(A) of the Securities Act of 1933, the 90 day reporting period in RUSA Section 402(2) is not adopted in this chapter.

6.    Section 202(5): Nonissuer transactions in specified fixed income securities: Prior Provisions: 1956 Act Section 402(b)(2)(B); RUSA Section 402(4).

The concept of a fixed income security rated by a nationally recognized statistical rating organization in one of its four highest rating categories described in Section 202(5)(A) is well established in federal securities law in Form S-3 adopted under the Securities Act of 1933 and the net capital Rule 15c3-1(c)(2)(vi)(F) adopted under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934. See 2 Louis Loss & Joel Seligman, Securities Regulation 649-653 (3d ed. rev. 1999). Nationally recognized statistical rating organizations have been identified by the Securities and Exchange Commission and include such organizations as Moody's and Standard and Poor's. Rating categories typically begin with AAA and under this chapter would include BBB as the fourth highest rating category.

Section 202(5)(B) follows the 1956 Act and RUSA, but also addresses blank check and similar offerings, which became major concerns at the state and federal levels during the past two decades. Cf. Securities Act of 1933 Rule 419. See Official Comment (3).

This subsection includes both debt securities with fixed maturity or a fixed interest rate and preferred stock with fixed dividend provisions.

7.    Section 202(6): Unsolicited brokerage transactions: Prior Provisions: 1956 Act Section 402(b)(3); RUSA Section 402(5). Section 18(b)(4)(B) of the Securities Act of 1933 defines as federal covered securities those subject to Section 4(4) of the Securities Act of 1933: "brokerage transactions executed upon customers' orders on any exchange or in the over-the-counter market but not the solicitation of such orders." Section 202(6) is intended to provide exemption for nonagency transactions by dealers not within the scope of Section 4(4).

The 1956 Act Section 402(b)(3) had provided that the administrator "may by rule require that the customer acknowledge upon a specified form that the same was unsolicited, and that a signed copy of each such form be preserved by the broker-dealer for a specified period." This type of requirement is preempted by Section 18(a) of the Securities Act of 1933 for federal covered securities and is viewed as unnecessary for the limited class of dealer nonagency transactions that will be exempted by Section 202(6).

8.    Section 202(7): Nonissuer transactions by pledgees: Prior Provisions: 1956 Act Section 402(b)(7); RUSA Section 402(9). This subsection is identical to the 1956 Act and substantively identical to RUSA.

9.    Section 202(8): Nonissuer transactions with federal covered investment advisers: No Prior Provision. This exemption was added because of a recognition that federal covered investment advisers are sophisticated financial professionals capable of determining the merits of a security and do not require the protections provided by requiring registration in a particular state.

10.    Section 202(9): Specified exchange transactions: No Prior Provision. Section 202(9) provides a state counterpart to the exemption in Section 3(a)(10) of the Securities Act of 1933.

11.    Section 202(10): Underwriter transactions: Prior Provisions: 1956 Act Section 402(b)(4); RUSA Section 402(6). This subsection is substantively identical to the 1956 Act and RUSA.

12.    Section 202(11): Unit secured transactions: Prior Provisions: 1956 Act Section 402(b)(5); RUSA Section 402(7). In recent years the application of this exemption has been one of concern to state securities administrators. The conditions that conclude this exemption are new and are intended to address these concerns.

13.    Section 202(12): Bankruptcy, guardian, or conservator transactions: Prior Provisions: 1956 Act Section 402(b)(6); RUSA Section 402(8). This subsection is identical to that in the 1956 Act and RUSA.

14.    Section 202(13): Transactions with specified investors: Prior Provision: 1956 Act Section 402(b)(8). The 1956 Act contains similar but less inclusive language in Section 402(b)(8). If the Securities and Exchange Commission adopts a rule defining "qualified purchaser" as used in Section 18(b)(3) of the Securities Act to specify certain purchasers of federal covered securities, part or all of this exemption will be redundant. As of September 2002, the Commission has proposed, but not adopted, Rule 146(c).

Section 202(13)(B) is limited to transactions for the account of a federal covered investment adviser and is not intended to reach transactions on behalf of others by such adviser.

15.    Section 202(14): Limited offering transactions: Prior Provisions: 1956 Act Section 402(b)(9); RUSA Section 402(11). The reference in the prefatory language to "a single issue" signifies that two or more issues can be "integrated" and potentially destroy the exemption. There are two general tests for integration under the federal securities laws. The states similarly have followed generally these types of integration principles with respect to securities transaction exemptions. First, there is a six month "buffer" before and after an offer, offer to sell, or sale of a transaction exempt under Section 202(14) during which no other issue can be distributed if integration automatically is to be avoided. See Rule 147(b)(2) and Rule 502(a) of the Securities Act of 1933. Second, if two issues occur within six months, integration may occur depending upon the following factors:

(i)        are the offerings part of a single plan of financing;

(ii)    do the offerings involve issuance of the same class of securities;

(iii)    are the offerings made at or about the same time;

(iv)    is the same type of consideration to be received; and

(v)    are the offerings made for the same general purpose.

See generally 3 Louis Loss & Joel Seligman, Securities Regulation 1231-1248 (3d ed. rev. 1999).

Section 402(b)(9) of the 1956 Act and Section 402(11) of the 1985 Act provide alternative limited offering transaction exemptions. The 1956 Act was limited to offers to no more than ten persons (other than institutional investors specified in Section 402(b)(8)); all purchasers in the State had to purchase for investment; and no remuneration was given for soliciting prospective purchasers in the State. RUSA, in contrast, was limited to no more than 25 purchasers (other than financial or institutional investors); no general solicitation or advertising; and no remuneration was paid to a person other than a broker-dealer for soliciting a prospective purchaser.

This section would apply to preorganization limited offerings as well as operating company limited offerings. The Securities Act of 1933 Sections 3(b) and 4(2) also apply to both. In contrast, the 1956 Act Section 402(b)(10) and RUSA Section 402(12) used similar concepts in separate Sections to apply to preorganization limited offerings.

Section 18(b)(4)(D) of the Securities Act of 1933 defines as federal covered securities those issued under Securities and Exchange Commission rules under Section 4(2) of the Securities Act. This would include Rule 506, which uses the "accredited investor" definition in Rule 501(a). When a transaction involves Rule 506, Section 18(b)(4)(D) further provides "that this paragraph does not prohibit a state from imposing notice filing requirements that are substantially similar to those required by rule or regulation under Section 4(2) that are in effect on September 1, 1996." These notice requirements are found in Section 302(c) of this chapter.

A majority of states have adopted a Uniform Limited Offering Exemption, coordinate to varying degrees with Regulation D. The authority to adopt this and other exemptive rules is provided in Section 203.

16.    Section 202(15): Transactions with existing security holders: Prior Provisions: 1956 Act Section 402(b)(11); RUSA Section 402(14). Section 3(a)(9) of the Securities Act of 1933 exempts exchange offerings with existing security holders. Under Section 18(b)(4)(C) transactions subject to Section 3(a)(9) are federal covered securities. See Section 102(7).

Notice requirements in the earlier 1956 Act and RUSA accordingly would be preempted by the Securities Act of 1933. See Section 18(a) of the Securities Act of 1933. Otherwise this exemption is substantively identical to the 1956 Act and RUSA.

17.    Section 202(16): Offerings registered under this chapter and the Securities Act of 1933: Prior Provisions: 1956 Act Section 402(b)(12); RUSA Section 402(15). This exemption generally follows the 1956 Act and RUSA. Rule 165 of the Securities Act of 1933, which was adopted in 1999, allows the offeror of securities in a business combination to make written communications that offer securities for sale before a registration statement is filed as long as specified conditions are satisfied.

RUSA Section 402(15)(ii) also required that a registration statement be filed under this chapter, but not yet be effective. By eliminating the filing requirement this exemption will reach the offer (but not the sale) of a security that is anticipated to be a federal covered security by applying for listing on the New York Stock Exchange or other exchange specified in Section 18(b)(1) of the Securities Act of 1933, but the listing and federal covered security status has not yet become effective.

18.    Section 202(17): Offerings when registration has been filed, but is not effective under this chapter and exempt from the Securities Act of 1933: Prior Provisions: RUSA Section 402(16). If a rule is adopted by the administrator a solicitation of interest document must accompany a registration by qualification as specified in Section 304(b)(13).

Oral offers may be made after a registration statement has been filed, both before and after a registration statement is effective.

This exemption does not operate unless the administrator adopts a rule under 202(17)(B).

19.    Section 202(18): Control transactions: Prior Provision: RUSA Section 402(17). Until 1972 mergers and similar transactions were not considered to involve sales and did not have to register under the Securities Act of 1933. In 1972 the Securities and Exchange Commission adopted Rule 145 defining many mergers and similar transactions to be sales and abandoned its earlier "no sale" doctrine. See 3 Louis Loss & Joel Seligman, Securities Regulation 1262-1280 (3d ed. rev. 1999).

Because most merger and similar transactions require shareholder approval and shareholders often have appraisal rights if they choose to dissent, the potential for abuse is less than in an offering of securities for cash. When appropriate the administrator can deny, condition, limit or revoke this exemption under Section 204. Section 202(18) does not follow the requirement in RUSA Section 402(17) that written notice of the transactions and a copy of the solicitation materials be given to the administrator 10 days before the consummation of the transaction and, that the administrator is empowered to disallow the exemption within the next 10 days.

20.    Section 202(19): Rescission offers: No Prior Provision. See Section 510 for discussion of rescission offers.

21.    Section 202(20): Out-of-state offers or sales: Source of law: Colo. Section 11-51-102(7). Compare A.S. Goldmen & Co., Inc. v. New Jersey Bur. of Sec., 163 F.3d 780 (3d Cir. 1999), which held that under the United States Constitution's Commerce Clause a State could authorize a securities administrator to prevent a broker-dealer from selling securities from a State to purchasers in other States where purchase of the securities was authorized. The concluding phrase "and is not part of an unlawful plan or scheme to evade this chapter" is intended to preclude reliance on this exemption by boiler rooms and others engaged in illegal activities.

Section 202(20) provides an exemption from securities registration and does not address an administrator's power to investigate and bring enforcement actions under Articles 5 and 6.

22. Section 202(21): Employee benefit plans: Prior Provision: RUSA Section 401(b)(12). The 1956 Act Section 402(a)(11) was limited to investment contracts issued in connection with specified employee benefit plans if the administrator was given 30 days written notice.

In 1979, the United States Supreme Court in International Bhd. of Teamsters v. Daniel, 439 U.S. 551 (1979), held that a noncontributory, mandatory pension plan subject to the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 (ERISA) was not a security within the meaning of the Securities Act of 1933 or the Securities Exchange Act of 1934. The Securities and Exchange Commission staff subsequently took the position that the interests of employees in involuntary, contributory plans are not securities. Sec. Act Rel. 6188, 19 SEC Dock. 465, 473 (1980). Both contributory and noncontributory pension or welfare plans subject to ERISA are excluded from the definition of security in Section 102(29).

In this definition, the term "advisors" does not mean "investment advisers," as defined in Section 102(15).

With respect to employee benefit plans that are securities, Section 202(21) provides an exemption, but follows RUSA in not limiting the exemption to investment contracts and not requiring 30 days notice to the administrator.     Section 202(21) is modeled, in part, on Rule 701(c) adopted under the Securities Act of 1933. Compliance with Rule 701 will provide compliance with this exemption.

Both the 1956 Act and RUSA, for unstated reasons, treated employee benefit plans as exempt securities, rather than exempt securities transactions. There appears to be no appropriate reason to do so.

Resale of employee benefit plan securities can occur under appropriate section 202 transaction exemptions. Section 202(21) is not intended to provide a new method of publicly issuing securities.

The administrator, when appropriate, can deny, condition, limit, or revoke an exemption under Section 202(21). See Section 204.

23.    Section 202(22): Specified dividends and tender offers and judicially recognized reorganizations: Prior Provision: 1956 Act Section 401(j)(6)(B) and (D); RUSA Section 101(13)(vi).

Section 202(22)(A) and (B) generally follow exclusions from the definition of sale in the 1956 Act and RUSA. Section 202(22)(C) is new and corresponds to Rule 162, recently adopted under the Securities Act of 1933, which allows the offeror in a stock exchange offer to solicit tenders of securities before a registration statement is effective as long as no securities are purchased until the registration statement is effective and the tender offer has expired.

24.    Section 202(23): Nonissuer transactions involving specified foreign issuer securities traded on designated securities exchanges. This exemption expressly covers Toronto Stock Exchange issuers that are public reporting companies under Canadian securities law and meet the 180 day continuous reporting requirement. In conformance with the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS), the exemption separately provides authority for the administrator to designate by rule or order other specific foreign jurisdictions and their trading exchanges upon an adequate showing. The exemption also provides authority for an administrator to revoke any designation if necessary or appropriate in the public interest and for the protection of investors.

South Carolina Reporter's Comments

1.        Section 35-1-202(1): Inserts the term "by or" before "through a broker-dealer or not." No other change to prior law.

2.        Section 35-1-202(2): This exemption is substantially rewritten.

3.        Section 35-1-202(3): No prior provision.

4.        Section 35-1-202(4): No prior provision.

5.        Section 35-1-202(5): No prior provision.

6.        Section 35-1-202(6): This exemption removes the ability of the Securities Commissioner to require completion and retention of a form acknowledging the unsolicited nature of the transaction. As pointed out in the Official Comments, this requirement is preempted as to "federally covered securities."

7.        Section 35-1-202(7): Identical to prior law.

8.        Section 35-1-202(8): No prior provision.

9.        Section 35-1-202(9): No prior provision.

10.    Section 35-1-202(10): No substantive change.

11.    Section 35-1-202(11): Substantially modifies existing law to narrow this exemption.

12.    Section 35-1-202(12): Identical to existing law.

13.    Section 35-1-202(13): This exemption modifies existing law by broadening its coverage, but removing the exemption where a federal covered investment advisor is acting on behalf of others.

14.    Section 35-1-202(14): The limited offering exemption combines separate exemptions under existing law for preorganization and operating company offerings. The Securities Commissioner is authorized under Section 203 of the USA to adopt by rule an exemption, as currently exists, to coordinate with Reg. D.

15.    Section 35-1-202(15): Substantively similar to existing law, but removes the notice filing request which has been preempted by NSMIA.

16.    Section 35-1-202(16): No substantive change.

17.    Section 35-1-202(17): No prior provision. As the Official Comments explain, this exemption does not operate unless the Securities Commissioner adopts a rule as provided in Section 202 (17)(B).

18.    Section 35-1-202(18): No prior provision. This exemption may be denied, conditioned, limited, or revoked by the Securities Commissioner under Section 204.

19.    Section 35-1-202(19): No prior provision.

20.    Section 35-1-202(20): No prior provision.

21.    Section 35-1-202(21): Existing law provides that investment contracts issued in connection with ERISA plans were exempt securities. This chapter reclassifies such investment contracts as exempt transactions.

22.    Section 35-1-202(22): Subsections (A) and (B) represent existing exclusions from the definition of a "sale," and so do not substantially change existing law. Subsection (C) changes prior law, but follows federal precedent, as set out in the Official Comments.

23.    Section 35-1-202(23): No prior provision.

Section 35-1-203.    A rule adopted or order issued under this chapter may exempt a security, transaction, or offer; a rule under this chapter may exempt a class of securities, transactions, or offers from any or all of the requirements of Sections 35-1-301 through 35-1-306 and 35-1-504; and an order under this chapter may waive, in whole or in part, any or all of the conditions for an exemption or offer under Sections 35-1-201 and 35-1-202.

Official Comments

Prior Provision: RUSA Section 403.

1.    Under this type of authority, 50 of 53 jurisdictions through September 2002 had adopted the Uniform Limited Offering Exemption (ULOE) or a Regulation D exemption, and 32 jurisdictions had adopted a Rule 144A exemption. This chapter does not incorporate ULOE or a Rule 144A exemption because of their complexity and the likelihood of periodic updating of their provisions. Rule 144A, and similar exemptions in ULOE, can be most effectively implemented by rule rather than statute.

2.    Under Section 203 a state would also be authorized to adopt by rule or order new exemptions as circumstances warrant for new technologies such as the Internet. Cf. NASAA Resolution Regarding Securities Offered on Internet, NASAA Rep. 7040 (Jan. 7, 1996).

3.    It is the intent of this Section that ULOE, Rule 144A, and additional exemptions or waivers be adopted uniformly by states, to the extent this is practicable.

South Carolina Reporter's Comments

This provision grants authority to the Securities Commissioner to respond to changing circumstances by relaxing the conditions to qualify for an exemption. Specifically, it is the authority under which a rule such as is found in existing law at S.C. Reg. 113-21 may provide for exemption of transactions which meet the requirements of Securities Act of 1933, Regulation D.

Section 35-1-204.    (a)    Except with respect to a federal covered security or a transaction involving a federal covered security, an order under this chapter may deny, suspend application of, condition, limit, or revoke an exemption created under Section 35-1-201(3)(C), (7) or (8) or 35-1-202 or an exemption or waiver created under Section 35-1-203 with respect to a specific security, transaction, or offer. An order under this section may be issued only pursuant to the procedures in Section 35-1-306(d) or 35-1-604 and only prospectively.

(b)    A person does not violate Section 35-1-301, 35-1-303 through 35-1-306, 35-1-504, or 35-1-510 by an offer to sell, offer to purchase, sale, or purchase effected after the entry of an order issued under this section if the person did not know, and in the exercise of reasonable care could not have known, of the order.

Official Comments

Prior Provisions: 1956 Act Section 402(c); RUSA Section 404.

1.    Section 204 is potentially far reaching. The ability to deny, condition, limit, or revoke the exemptions specified in Sections 201(3)(C), 201(7), 201(8), 202, or 203 is adopted concomitant with the breadth of these exemptions. One or more than one security, transaction, or offer can be covered by a Section 204 order.

2.    The courts have given a securities administrator's decision to deny or revoke an exemption substantial deference when there was compliance with applicable due process and statutory requirements. See, e.g., Johnson-Bowles Co., Inc. v. Div. of Sec., 829 P.2d 101 (Utah Ct. App. 1992).

South Carolina Reporter's Comments

The Securities Commissioner has broad powers under existing law to regulate certain exemptions with regard to specific transactions. This section continues that authority and provides that the procedure will be the same as that for the denial, suspension, or revocation of a securities registration in Section 35-1-306.

Article 3 Registration of Securities and Notice Filing of Federal Covered Securities

Section 35-1-301.    It is unlawful for a person to offer or sell a security in this State unless:

(1)    the security is a federal covered security;

(2)    the security, transaction, or offer is exempted from registration under Sections 35-1-201 through 35-1-203; or

(3)    the security is registered under this chapter.

Official Comments

Prior Provisions: 1956 Act Section 301; RUSA Section 301.

1.    This Section is substantively identical to the 1956 Act and RUSA except for the addition of Section 301(1), which is necessitated by the National Securities Markets Improvement Act of 1996. See Section 102(7).

2.    Except for federal covered securities, exempt securities, or securities offered or sold in exempt transactions, no sale of a security may be made in this State before the security is registered. "Sale" is defined in Section 102(26); "in this State" is addressed in Section 610; and securities registration is addressed in Sections 303 through 306.

3.    The Securities Act of 1933 permits certain types of offers during the "waiting period" between the filing and effectiveness of a registration statement. The exemptive provisions of Sections 202(16) and (17) operate to permit similar offers for securities that are not federal covered securities and are in the process of registration under federal or state statutes or both.

4.    Notice filings and fees applicable to federal covered securities, see Section 102(7), are addressed in Section 302.

South Carolina Reporter's Comments

This section is substantively identical to prior law found at former Section 35-1-810. The 1997 amendment to Section 35-1-810 reflected the changes in registration requirements mandated by NSMIA. South Carolina adopted the Uniform Act alternative by providing that the Securities Commissioner may set fees by rule or order, thus avoiding the need for new legislation in order to change fees or penalties for noncompliance.

Section 35-1-302.    (a)    With respect to a federal covered security, as defined in Section 18(b)(2) of the Securities Act of 1933 (15 U.S.C. Section 77r(b)(2)), that is not otherwise exempt under Sections 35-1-201 through 35-1-203, a rule adopted or order issued under this chapter may require the filing of one or more of the following records:

(1)    before the initial offer of a federal covered security in this State, all records that are part of a federal registration statement filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission under the Securities Act of 1933 and a consent to service of process complying with Section 35-1-611 signed by the issuer and the payment of a fee set forth by the Securities Commissioner by rule or order;

(2)    after the initial offer of the federal covered security in this State, all records that are part of an amendment to a federal registration statement filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission under the Securities Act of 1933; and

(3)    to the extent necessary or appropriate to compute fees, a report of the value of the federal covered securities sold or offered to persons present in this State, if the sales data are not included in records filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission and payment of a fee set forth by the Securities Commissioner by rule or order.

(b)    A notice filing under subsection (a) is effective for one year commencing on the later of the notice filing or the effectiveness of the offering filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission. On or before expiration, the issuer may renew a notice filing by filing a copy of those records filed by the issuer with the Securities and Exchange Commission that are required by rule or order under this chapter to be filed and by paying a renewal fee set forth by the Securities Commissioner by rule or order. A previously filed consent to service of process complying with Section 35-1-611 may be incorporated by reference in a renewal. A renewed notice filing becomes effective upon the expiration of the filing being renewed.

(c)    With respect to a security that is a federal covered security under Section 18(b)(4)(D) of the Securities Act of 1933(15 U.S.C. Section 77r(b)(4)(D)), a rule adopted or order issued under this chapter may require a notice filing by or on behalf of an issuer to include a copy of Form D, including the Appendix, as promulgated by the Securities and Exchange Commission, and a consent to service of process complying with Section 35-1-611 signed by the issuer not later than fifteen days after the first sale of the federal covered security in this State and the payment of any applicable fee, including any fee for late filing.

(d)    Except with respect to a federal security under Section 18(b)(1) of the Securities Act of 1933 (15 U.S.C. Section 77r(b)(1)), if the Securities Commissioner finds that there is a failure to comply with a notice or fee requirement of this section, the Securities Commissioner may issue a stop order suspending the offer and sale of a federal covered security in this State. If the deficiency is corrected, the stop order is void as of the time of its issuance and a penalty for noncompliance may be imposed by the Securities Commissioner in an amount established by rule or order.

Official Comments

No Prior Provision.

1.    The little used "registration by notification" in the 1956 Act Section 302 or "registration by filing" in RUSA Section 302 are omitted from this chapter because of the notice filing approach required by Section 18(b)(2) of the Securities Act of 1933 for federal covered securities, which, in essence, replaces the need for registration by notification.

2.    For Rule 506 offerings which are addressed by Section 18(d)(4)(D) of the Securities Act of 1933, the Securities and Exchange Commission requires the filing of Form D. See Rule 503. When an issuer meets the conditions of Rule 506, Section 302(c) is intended to limit required state filings to no more than a requirement of filing a copy of Form D, including the Appendix, a consent to service of process, and a fee.

3.    The definition of "filing" in Section 102(8) will permit states to receive electronic filing of records under this Section. An administrator may also accept under this section a signed consent filed electronically with a designee of the administrator. See Section 105.

4.    If a State prefers to have the fees in this section established by rule, replace the phrase "a fee of $[___]" in subsections (a), (b), and (c) with the phrase "a fee established by the administrator by rule". See Comment 3 to Section 410.

South Carolina Reporter's Comments

This section is new and replaces "registration by notification" found in former Sections 35-1-820 and 830, and Section 35-1-1100. Since the 1933 Act now allows notice filing for "federal covered securities," this section is designed to create a uniform approach at the state level. The new provision in subsection 302(a), which applies to nonexempt federal covered securities, gives the Securities Commissioner the authority to require the filing of SEC notice documents, together with information relevant to assessing a State fee.

Section 35-1-303.    (a)    A security for which a registration statement has been filed under the Securities Act of 1933 in connection with the same offering may be registered by coordination under this section.

(b)    A registration statement and accompanying records under this section must contain or be accompanied by the following records in addition to the information specified in Section 35-1-305 and a consent to service of process complying with Section 35-1-611:

(1)    a copy of the latest form of prospectus filed under the Securities Act of 1933;

(2)    a copy of the articles of incorporation and bylaws or their substantial equivalents currently in effect; a copy of any agreement with or among underwriters; a copy of any indenture or other instrument governing the issuance of the security to be registered; and a specimen, copy, or description of the security that is required by rule adopted or order issued under this chapter;

(3)    copies of any other information or any other records filed by the issuer under the Securities Act of 1933 requested by the Securities Commissioner; and

(4)    an undertaking to forward each amendment to the federal prospectus, other than an amendment that delays the effective date of the registration statement, promptly after it is filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission.

(c)    A registration statement under this section becomes effective simultaneously with or subsequent to the federal registration statement when all the following conditions are satisfied:

(1)    a stop order under subsection (d) or Section 35-1-306 or issued by the Securities and Exchange Commission is not in effect and a proceeding is not pending against the issuer under Section 35-1-306; and

(2)    the registration statement has been on file for at least twenty days or a shorter period provided by rule adopted or order issued under this chapter.

(d)    The registrant shall promptly notify the Securities Commissioner in a record of the date when the federal registration statement becomes effective and the content of any price amendment and shall promptly file a record containing the price amendment. If the notice is not timely received, the Securities Commissioner may issue a stop order, without prior notice or hearing, retroactively denying effectiveness to the registration statement or suspending its effectiveness until compliance with this section. The Securities Commissioner shall promptly notify the registrant of an order by telegram, telephone, facsimile, or other electronic means and promptly confirm this notice by a record. If the registrant subsequently complies with the notice requirements of this section, the stop order is void as of the date of its issuance.

(e)    If the federal registration statement becomes effective before each of the conditions in this section is satisfied or is waived by the Securities Commissioner, the registration statement is automatically effective under this chapter when all the conditions are satisfied or waived. If the registrant notifies the Securities Commissioner of the date when the federal registration statement is expected to become effective, the Securities Commissioner shall promptly notify the registrant by telegram, telephone, facsimile, or other electronic means and promptly confirm this notice by a record, indicating whether all the conditions are satisfied or waived and whether the Securities Commissioner intends the institution of a proceeding under Section 35-1-306. The notice by the Securities Commissioner does not preclude the institution of such a proceeding.

Official Comments

Prior Provisions: 1956 Act Section 303; RUSA Section 303.

1.    Registration by coordination was one of the key innovations of the 1956 Act. As in the 1956 Act, Section 303 streamlines the content of the registration statement and the procedure by which a registration statement becomes effective, but not the substantive standards governing the effectiveness of a registration statement.

2.    The phrase "in connection with the same offering" in Section 303 does not require that the federal and state registration statements be filed simultaneously or become effective simultaneously. A registration by coordination can be filed in a State after the effectiveness of the federal registration statement as long as the administrator does not conclude that the interval was too long to consider the State registration statement "the same offering."

3.    Section 303 is similar to the 1956 Act except that these provisions have been modernized to include electronic filing and electronic notification. Cf. Sections 102(8), 102(25), 105. It is anticipated that this will facilitate simultaneous filing with the Securities and Exchange Commission and the States which is consistent with the uniformity intended by this chapter.     Simultaneous or sequential filing could be administered through a designee similar to the current Web-CRD or in conjunction with the Securities and Exchange Commission's Electronic Data Gathering, Analysis, and Retrieval (EDGAR) system or otherwise.

4.    Section 303(b) is not intended to limit the administrator to requiring only the information and records filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission.

5.    Sections 303(c) through (e) describe the conditions to be satisfied to achieve effectiveness of a coordinated filing. "Price amendment" is defined in Section 102(23). The administrator retains the right to test the registration statement by the substantive standards of Section 306(a) and may issue a stop or denial order if the administrator believes any of those provisions are applicable.

South Carolina Reporter's Comments

1.    Section 35-1-303(a) and (b) is similar to prior law found at former Sections 35-1-840 and 850. Also under prior law, the Securities Commissioner issued S.C. Regs. 113-10 concerning the submission of financial statements with a registration application. Pursuant to Sections 605(a) and (c) the "Administrator" will have the authority to issue a similar regulation.

2.    Subsections 35-1-303(c) through (e) are new and describe the conditions for achieving effective coordinated filing. They apply to SEC registered securities which do not meet the standards of listing exchanges and are therefore not "federally covered securities."

Issues which are not "federally covered securities" must register either by coordination or qualification. Under the coordination approach, issuers file copies of their federal registration statements and amendments with the state, plus additional documents, such as the underwriter's agreement or articles of incorporation. The effective date of the state registration statement is coordinated with the effective date of the federal registration by virtue of Section 35-1-303(c) and (e).

Section 35-1-304.    (a)    A security may be registered by qualification under this section.

(b)    A registration statement under this section must contain the information or records specified in Section 35-1-305, a consent to service of process complying with Section 35-1-611, and, if required by rule adopted under this chapter, the following information or records:

(1)    with respect to the issuer and any significant subsidiary, its name, address, and form of organization; the State or foreign jurisdiction and date of its organization; the general character and location of its business; a description of its physical properties and equipment; and a statement of the general competitive conditions in the industry or business in which it is or will be engaged;

(2)    with respect to each director and officer of the issuer, and other person having a similar status or performing similar functions, the person's name, address, and principal occupation for the previous five years; the amount of securities of the issuer held by the person as of the thirtieth day before the filing of the registration statement; the amount of the securities covered by the registration statement to which the person has indicated an intention to subscribe; and a description of any material interest of the person in any material transaction with the issuer or a significant subsidiary effected within the previous three years or proposed to be effected;

(3)    with respect to persons covered by paragraph (2), the aggregate sum of the remuneration paid to those persons during the previous twelve months and estimated to be paid during the next twelve months, directly or indirectly, by the issuer, and all predecessors, parents, subsidiaries, and affiliates of the issuer;

(4)    with respect to a person owning of record or owning beneficially, if known, ten percent or more of the outstanding shares of any class of equity security of the issuer, the information specified in paragraph (2) other than the person's occupation;

(5)    with respect to a promoter, if the issuer was organized within the previous three years, the information or records specified in paragraph (2), any amount paid to the promoter within that period or intended to be paid to the promoter, and the consideration for the payment;

(6)    with respect to a person on whose behalf any part of the offering is to be made in a nonissuer distribution, the person's name and address; the amount of securities of the issuer held by the person as of the date of the filing of the registration statement; a description of any material interest of the person in any material transaction with the issuer or any significant subsidiary effected within the previous three years or proposed to be effected; and a statement of the reasons for making the offering;

(7)    the capitalization and long term debt, on both a current and pro forma basis, of the issuer and any significant subsidiary, including a description of each security outstanding or being registered or otherwise offered, and a statement of the amount and kind of consideration, whether in the form of cash, physical assets, services, patents, goodwill, or anything else of value, for which the issuer or any subsidiary has issued its securities within the previous two years or is obligated to issue its securities;

(8)    the kind and amount of securities to be offered; the proposed offering price or the method by which it is to be computed; any variation at which a proportion of the offering is to be made to a person or class of persons other than the underwriters, with a specification of the person or class; the basis on which the offering is to be made if otherwise than for cash; the estimated aggregate underwriting and selling discounts or commissions and finders' fees, including separately cash, securities, contracts, or anything else of value to accrue to the underwriters or finders in connection with the offering or, if the selling discounts or commissions are variable, the basis of determining them and their maximum and minimum amounts; the estimated amounts of other selling expenses, including legal, engineering, and accounting charges; the name and address of each underwriter and each recipient of a finder's fee; a copy of any underwriting or selling group agreement under which the distribution is to be made or the proposed form of any such agreement whose terms have not yet been determined; and a description of the plan of distribution of any securities that are to be offered otherwise than through an underwriter;

(9)    the estimated monetary proceeds to be received by the issuer from the offering; the purposes for which the proceeds are to be used by the issuer; the estimated amount to be used for each purpose; the order or priority in which the proceeds will be used for the purposes stated; the amounts of any funds to be raised from other sources to achieve the purposes stated; the sources of the funds; and, if a part of the proceeds is to be used to acquire property, including goodwill, otherwise than in the ordinary course of business, the names and addresses of the vendors, the purchase price, the names of any persons that have received commissions in connection with the acquisition, and the amounts of the commissions and other expenses in connection with the acquisition, including the cost of borrowing money to finance the acquisition;

(10)    a description of any stock options or other security options outstanding, or to be created in connection with the offering, and the amount of those options held or to be held by each person required to be named in paragraph (2), (4), (5), (6), or (8) and by any person that holds or will hold ten percent or more in the aggregate of those options;

(11)    the dates of, parties to, and general effect concisely stated of each managerial or other material contract made or to be made otherwise than in the ordinary course of business to be performed in whole or in part at or after the filing of the registration statement or that was made within the previous two years, and a copy of the contract;

(12)    a description of any pending litigation, action, or proceeding to which the issuer is a party and that materially affects its business or assets, and any litigation, action, or proceeding known to be contemplated by governmental authorities;

(13)    a copy of any prospectus, pamphlet, circular, form letter, advertisement, or other sales literature intended as of the effective date to be used in connection with the offering and any solicitation of interest used in compliance with Section 35-1-202(17)(B);

(14)    a specimen or copy of the security being registered, unless the security is uncertificated; a copy of the issuer's articles of incorporation and bylaws or their substantial equivalents, in effect; and a copy of any indenture or other instrument covering the security to be registered;

(15)    a signed or conformed copy of an opinion of counsel concerning the legality of the security being registered, with an English translation if it is in a language other than English, which states whether the security when sold will be validly issued, fully paid, and nonassessable and, if a debt security, a binding obligation of the issuer;

(16)    a signed or conformed copy of a consent of any accountant, engineer, appraiser, or other person whose profession gives authority for a statement made by the person, if the person is named as having prepared or certified a report or valuation, other than an official record, that is public, which is used in connection with the registration statement;

(17)    a balance sheet of the issuer as of a date within four months before the filing of the registration statement; a statement of income and a statement of cash flows for each of the three fiscal years preceding the date of the balance sheet and for any period between the close of the immediately previous fiscal year and the date of the balance sheet, or for the period of the issuer's and any predecessor's existence if less than three years; and, if any part of the proceeds of the offering is to be applied to the purchase of a business, the financial statements that would be required if that business were the registrant; provided, however, that financial statements meeting the requirements of Regulation S-B shall be permitted to be substituted by issuers that are "small business issuers" as defined by Regulation S-B (17 C.F.R. part 228); and

(18)    any additional information or records required by rule adopted or order issued under this chapter.

(c)    A registration statement under this section becomes effective thirty days, or any shorter period provided by rule adopted or order issued under this chapter, after the date the registration statement or the last amendment other than a price amendment is filed, if:

(1)    a stop order is not in effect and a proceeding is not pending under Section 35-1-306;

(2)    the Securities Commissioner has not issued an order under Section 35-1-306 delaying effectiveness; or

(3)    the applicant or registrant has not requested that effectiveness be delayed.

(d)    The Securities Commissioner may delay effectiveness once for not more than ninety days if the Securities Commissioner determines the registration statement is not complete in all material respects and promptly notifies the applicant or registrant of that determination. The Securities Commissioner also may delay effectiveness for a further period of not more than thirty days if the Securities Commissioner determines that the delay is necessary or appropriate.

(e)    A rule adopted or order issued under this chapter may require as a condition of registration under this section that a prospectus containing a specified part of the information or record specified in subsection (b) be sent or given to each person to which an offer is made, before or concurrently, with the earliest of:

(1)    the first offer made in a record to the person otherwise than by means of a public advertisement, by or for the account of the issuer or another person on whose behalf the offering is being made or by an underwriter or broker-dealer that is offering part of an unsold allotment or subscription taken by the person as a participant in the distribution;

(2)    the confirmation of a sale made by or for the account of the person;

(3)    payment pursuant to such a sale; or

(4)    delivery of the security pursuant to such a sale.

Official Comments

Prior Provisions: 1956 Act Section 304; RUSA Section 304.

1.    This Section generally follows the 1956 Act and RUSA. Any security may be registered by qualification, whether or not another type of registration is available. Ordinarily, however, registration by qualification will only be used by an issuer when no other procedure is available.

2.    Section 304(b) originally was modeled on Schedule A of the Securities Act of 1933.

3.    In Section 304(b)(12) pending litigation can include litigation that has not yet been filed.

4.    Section 304(b)(17) uses the same terminology as is used currently in Regulation S-X of the Securities and Exchange Commission. Under Sections 605(a) and (c) the administrator is authorized to specify the form and content of rules and forms governing registration statements and the form and content of financial statements required under this chapter.

5.    Under Sections 304(b)(18) and 307 the administrator may require additional information or may waive in whole or in part or condition any of the requirements of Section 304(b). Section 304(b)(18), for example, would authorize the administrator to require that a report by an accountant, engineer, appraiser or other professional person be filed. Section 304(b)(18) would also authorize that securities of designated classes under a trust indenture contain additional specified information.

South Carolina Reporter's Comments

1.    Section 35-1-304(a) and (b) is similar to prior law found at former Section 35-1-880. South Carolina amended Section 35-1-304(b)(17) to provide that small business issuers may comply with the financial statement requirement by meeting the SEC Reg. S-B requirements for financial statements.

2.    Section 35-1-304(c) and (e) is new and describe the conditions for achieving an effective filing by qualification. Ordinarily, registration by qualification will be the last procedure an issuer will choose to use. The "full-fledged" registration requirements of this Section are similar to the federal registration application, and will be used primarily by those smaller issuers whose securities are either intrastate offerings or are exempt from SEC registration because of their small size.

3.    Section 35-1-304(e) provides that the Securities Commissioner may, by rule or order, require a prospectus containing specified portions of the registration statement be provided to each person to which an offer is made. This subsection changes prior law found at former Section 35-1-990 by making delivery of a prospectus approved by the securities commissioner a matter of rulemaking authority rather than being mandated by statute. Also under prior law, the Securities Commissioner issued S.C. Regs. 113-10 concerning the submission of financial statements with a registration application. Pursuant to Section 35-1-605(a) and (c), the Securities Commissioner will have the authority to issue a similar regulation.

Section 35-1-305.    (a)    A registration statement may be filed by the issuer, a person on whose behalf the offering is to be made, or a broker-dealer registered under this chapter.

(b)    A person filing a registration statement shall pay a filing fee set forth by the Securities Commissioner by rule or order. If a registration statement is withdrawn before the effective date or a preeffective stop order is issued under Section 35-1-306, the Securities Commissioner shall retain a fee set forth by the Securities Commissioner by rule or order.

(c)    A registration statement filed under Section 35-1-303 or 35-1-304 must specify:

(1)    the amount of securities to be offered in this State;

(2)    the States in which a registration statement or similar record in connection with the offering has been or is to be filed; and

(3)    any adverse order, judgment, or decree issued in connection with the offering by a State securities regulator, the Securities and Exchange Commission, or a court.

(d)    A record filed under this chapter or the predecessor chapter within five years preceding the filing of a registration statement or filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission and is available to the public without charge via the Internet may be incorporated by reference in the registration statement to the extent that the record is currently accurate.

(e)    In the case of a nonissuer distribution, information or a record may not be required under subsection (i) or Section 35-1-304, unless it is known to the person filing the registration statement or to the person on whose behalf the distribution is to be made or unless it can be furnished by those persons without unreasonable effort or expense.

(f)    A rule adopted or order issued under this chapter may require as a condition of registration that a security issued within the previous five years or to be issued to a promoter for a consideration substantially less than the public offering price or to a person for a consideration other than cash be deposited in escrow; and that the proceeds from the sale of the registered security in this State be impounded until the issuer receives a specified amount from the sale of the security either in this State or elsewhere. The conditions of any escrow or impoundment required under this subsection may be established by rule adopted or order issued under this chapter, but the Securities Commissioner may not reject a depository institution solely because of its location in another State.

(g)    A rule adopted or order issued under this chapter may require as a condition of registration that a security registered under this chapter be sold only on a specified form of subscription or sale contract and that a signed or conformed copy of each contract be filed under this chapter or preserved for a period specified by the rule or order, which may not be longer than five years.

(h)    Except while a stop order is in effect under Section 35-1-306, a registration statement is effective for one year after its effective date, or for any longer period designated in an order under this chapter during which the security is being offered or distributed in a nonexempted transaction by or for the account of the issuer or other person on whose behalf the offering is being made or by an underwriter or broker-dealer that is still offering part of an unsold allotment or subscription taken as a participant in the distribution. For the purposes of a nonissuer transaction, all outstanding securities of the same class identified in the registration statement as a security registered under this chapter are considered to be registered while the registration statement is effective. If any securities of the same class are outstanding, a registration statement may not be withdrawn until one year after its effective date. A registration statement may be withdrawn only with the approval of the Securities Commissioner.

(i)        While a registration statement is effective, a rule adopted or order issued under this chapter may require the person that filed the registration statement to file reports, not more often than quarterly, to keep the information or other record in the registration statement reasonably current, and to disclose the progress of the offering.

(j)        A registration statement may be amended after its effective date. The posteffective amendment becomes effective when the Securities Commissioner so orders. If a posteffective amendment is made to increase the number of securities specified to be offered or sold, the person filing the amendment shall pay a registration fee set forth by the Securities Commissioner by rule or order. A posteffective amendment relates back to the date of the offering of the additional securities being registered if, within one year after the date of the sale, the amendment is filed and the additional registration fee is paid.

Official Comments

Prior Provisions: 1956 Act Section 305; RUSA Section 305.

1.    Section 305 generally follows the 1956 Act and RUSA except that earlier provisions in both Acts referring to Investment Company Act of 1940 securities, which are federal covered securities, see Section 102(7), have been deleted.

2.    Section 305 is applicable both to registration by coordination, see Section 303, and to registration by qualification, see Section 304.

3.    Section 305(a) expressly authorizes registration by "a person on whose behalf the offering is to be made." This would permit a nonissuer, cf. Section 102(18), or a broker-dealer to file a registration statement independent of the issuer.

4.    This chapter is intended, to the extent practicable, to be revenue neutral in its impact on existing state law, see Comment 3 to Section 608. Accordingly, Section 305(b) does not specify what fees states should provide. If a State prefers to have the fees in this section established by rule, replace the phrase "a fee of $[___]" in subsections (b) and (j) with the phrase "a fee established by the administrator by rule pursuant to the [state administrative procedure act]" and replace the phrase "$[___] of the fee" in subsection (b) with the phrase "an amount of the fee established by the administrator by rule". See Comment 3 to Section 410.

5.    Section 305(c), which generally follows the 1956 Act and RUSA, does not require in Section 305(c)(3) disclosure of an order permitting the withdrawal of a registration statement. The administrator may, however, require disclosure of this information in a registration by qualification under Section 304(b)(18).

6.    Section 305(c), like every other provision concerned with the content of the registration statement, must be read with Section 306(a)(1) which judges the accuracy and completeness of the registration statement as of its effective date unless an order denying effectiveness had been entered before the effective date. A registration statement must be kept current with changing developments until the effectiveness date, but a registration statement is not required to be amended after the effective date except to correct inaccuracies or deficiencies which existed as of the effective date. An administrator, however, separately may require under Section 305(i) or (j) periodic reports or amendments to keep reasonably current the information contained in the registration statement.

7.    Under Section 305(d) incorporation by reference is permitted as a matter of administrative practice.

8.    Section 305(e) is the substantive equivalent to provisions in the 1956 Act and RUSA. This subsection is designed to address nonissuer offerings where the seller cannot obtain certified financial statements and other normally required records. The phrase "without unreasonable effort or expense" originated in Section 10(a)(3) of the Securities Act of 1933. It is not meant to apply to expenses incidental to supplying required information required for registration in the case of a nonissuer distribution by a person in a control relationship with the issuer or otherwise having access to or contractual rights to obtain the required information. Section 305(e) applies only to registration by qualification under Section 304 and periodic reports for either registration by coordination or registration by qualification under Section 305(i).

9.    Section 305(f), follows the 1956 Act and RUSA, and authorizes the administrator to require the impoundment of funds until the issuer receives a specified amount from the sale of the security in this State or elsewhere and to require the escrow of promotional stock until specific conditions are met. This section is limited to a security issued within the past five years or to be issued to a promoter for a consideration substantially different from the public offering price or to a person for a consideration other than cash. The typical distribution subject to Section 305(f) will be a relatively new promotional or speculative offering. Section 305(f) follows the 1956 Act and RUSA and provides that the administrator may not reject a depository solely because of its location in another state. Unlike the statute in Schwaemmle Const. Co. v. Michigan Dep't of Commerce, 360 N.W.2d 141 (Mich. 1984), Section 305(f) broadly provides that the administrator "may determine the conditions of any escrow or impoundment under this subsection." As in Schwaemmle, this power will operate only until the impounded funds or escrowed shares are released.

10.    Section 305(g) follows the 1956 Act in authorizing the administrator to specify the form of a subscription or sale contract.

11.    Section 305(h) generally follows the 1956 Act and RUSA. The term "nonissuer transaction" or "nonissuer distribution" is defined in Section 102(18). A sale by a nonissuer would have to be registered under Section 301 unless it is exempted or involves a federal covered security. Section 202(1) exempts "isolated nonissuer transactions." When a nonissuer transaction is not exempt under Section 202(1), it may still be exempted under other transaction exemptions.

If no exemption is available for a nonissuer distribution, and it does not involve a federal covered security, the security must be registered under Article 3. Under the first sentence of Section 305(h) each registration statement remains effective for at least one year and for any longer period the administrator may determine. However, no registration statement is effective while a stop order with respect to it is in effect under Section 306.

For the purposes of a nonissuer transaction, all outstanding securities of the same class as a registered security are considered to be registered as long as the registration statement remains effective. This means that during the effective period of a registration statement under this chapter all outstanding securities of the same class can be traded by anyone, including nonissuers, as if they were registered.

Section 305(h) also provides that, unless the administrator determines otherwise, a registration statement cannot be withdrawn until one year after its effective date if any securities of the same class are outstanding. This is designed to protect sellers who would be unaware of a withdrawal from being subject to civil liability.

12.    Section 305(j) follows RUSA and a procedure limited to investment companies in the 1956 Act in allowing posteffective date amendments. Under Section 305(j), when a posteffective amendment increases the number of securities to be offered or sold, an additional registration fee is required.

South Carolina Reporter's Comments

1.    This section generally follows prior law found at former Sections 35-1-890 through 35-1-970, except that references to the Investment Company Act of 1940 securities have been deleted since those are now "federally covered securities." South Carolina chose to have the Securities Commissioner set filing fees, as was provided under prior law found at former Section 35-1-900.

2.    Subsection (c) is substantially similar to prior law found at former Section 35-1-910.

3.    Subsection (d) is substantially similar to former Section 35-1-920, except that the incorporation by reference provision was amended by South Carolina to include SEC Edgar filings.

4.    Subsection (e) is substantially similar to prior law found at former Section 35-1-940.

5.    Subsection (f) revises prior law found at Section 35-1-950 by going back five years instead of three years in determining whether "cheap stock" should be ordered to be escrowed as a condition of registration. Subsection (f) also provides that the Securities Commissioner may not reject a deposit solely because it is in another state.

6.    Subsection (g) is substantially similar to prior law found in the second paragraph of former Section 35-1-950, except it extends the time period to five years.

7.    Subsection (h) is similar to prior law found at former Section 35-1-960, except that it provides the effective period of a registration statement may be extended beyond one year by order and it is more specific in designating who may make the offering.

8.    Subsection (i) is substantially similar to prior law found at former Section 35-1-970.

9.    Subsection (j) allowing post effective amendments is a new provision. South Carolina amended subsection (j) to allow the Securities Commissioner to set registration fees.

Section 35-1-306.    (a)    The Securities Commissioner may issue a stop order denying effectiveness to, or suspending or revoking the effectiveness of, a registration statement if the Securities Commissioner finds that the order is in the public interest and that:

(1)    the registration statement as of its effective date or before the effective date in the case of an order denying effectiveness, an amendment under Section 35-1-305(j) as of its effective date, or a report under Section 35-1-305(i), is incomplete in a material respect or contains a statement that, in the light of the circumstances under which it was made, was false or misleading with respect to a material fact;

(2)    this chapter or a rule adopted or order issued under this chapter or a condition imposed under this chapter has been wilfully violated, in connection with the offering, by the person filing the registration statement; by the issuer, a partner, officer, or director of the issuer or a person having a similar status or performing a similar function; a promoter of the issuer; or a person directly or indirectly controlling or controlled by the issuer; but only if the person filing the registration statement is directly or indirectly controlled by or acting for the issuer; or by an underwriter;

(3)    the security registered or sought to be registered is the subject of a permanent or temporary injunction of a court of competent jurisdiction or an administrative stop order or similar order issued under any federal, foreign, or state law other than this chapter applicable to the offering, but the Securities Commissioner may not institute a proceeding against an effective registration statement under this paragraph more than one year after the date of the order or injunction on which it is based, and the Securities Commissioner may not issue an order under this paragraph on the basis of an order or injunction issued under the securities act of another State unless the order or injunction was based on conduct that would constitute, as of the date of the order, a ground for a stop order under this section;

(4)    the issuer's enterprise or method of business includes or would include activities that are unlawful where performed;

(5)    with respect to a security sought to be registered under Section 35-1-303, there has been a failure to comply with the undertaking required by Section 35-1-303(b)(4);

(6)    the applicant or registrant has not paid the filing fee, but the Securities Commissioner shall void the order if the deficiency is corrected; or

(7)    the offering:

(A)    will work or tend to work a fraud upon purchasers or would so operate; or

(B)    has been or would be made with unreasonable amounts of underwriters' and sellers' discounts, commissions, or other compensation, or promoters' profits or participations, or unreasonable amounts or kinds of options.

(b)    To the extent practicable, the Securities Commissioner by rule adopted or order issued under this chapter shall publish standards that provide notice of conduct that violates subsection (a)(7).

(c)    The Securities Commissioner may not institute a stop order proceeding against an effective registration statement on the basis of conduct or a transaction known to the Securities Commissioner when the registration statement became effective unless the proceeding is instituted within thirty days after the registration statement became effective.

(d)    The Securities Commissioner may summarily revoke, deny, postpone, or suspend the effectiveness of a registration statement pending final determination of an administrative proceeding. Upon the issuance of the order, the Securities Commissioner shall promptly notify each person specified in subsection (e) that the order has been issued, the reasons for the revocation, denial, postponement, or suspension, and that within fifteen days after the receipt of a request in a record from the person the matter will be scheduled for a hearing. If a hearing is not requested and none is ordered by the Securities Commissioner, within thirty days after the date of service of the order, the order becomes final. If a hearing is requested or ordered, the Securities Commissioner, after notice of and opportunity for hearing for each person subject to the order, may modify or vacate the order or extend the order until final determination.

(e)    A stop order may not be issued under this section without:             (1)    appropriate notice to the applicant or registrant, the issuer, and the person on whose behalf the securities are to be or have been offered;

(2)    an opportunity for hearing; and

(3)    findings of fact and conclusions of law in a record.

(f)    The Securities Commissioner may modify or vacate a stop order issued under this section if the Securities Commissioner finds that the conditions that caused its issuance have changed or that it is necessary or appropriate in the public interest or for the protection of investors.

Official Comments

Prior Provisions: 1956 Act Section 306; RUSA Section 306.

1.    This Section generally follows the 1956 Act and RUSA and applies to both registration by coordination under Section 303 and registration by qualification under Section 304.

2.    Section 306(a)(1) follows the 1956 Act and RUSA in testing in a suspension or revocation proceeding the completeness and accuracy of a registration statement as of the registration statement's effective date. A registration statement that becomes misleading because of a development that occurs after its effective date is not a ground for the issuance of a stop order under Section 306(a)(1). An administrator, however, may require periodic reports under Section 305(i) or a posteffective amendment under Section 305(j). With respect to periodic reports under Section 305(i), a misleading report would be the basis of a stop order under Section 306(a)(1) if it is materially inaccurate as of the date it was filed.

3.    On the meaning of "wilfully," see Comment 2 under Section 508.

4.    A violation by an issuer has the same consequences whether the issuer has filed a registration statement or has had a broker-dealer file it. But this is not the case when the registration statement is filed by a broker-dealer acting independently.

5.    The verb "is" at the beginning of Section 306(a)(3) means that a stop order or injunction that has expired or been vacated is not the ground for action under this paragraph.

6.    Section 306(a)(4) applies to activity that is conducted in a State where that activity is illegal. It does not apply if the activity is not illegal under that State's law. This paragraph is not meant to apply to activity which is lawful where conducted but would be illegal if conducted in the State where the registration statement is filed.

7.    Sections 306(a)(5) and (6) follow the 1956 Act and RUSA.

8.    Sections 306(a)(7) and (b) address merit regulation. Sections 306(E) and (F) of the 1956 Act authorized a stop order when an "offering has worked or tended to work a fraud upon purchasers or would so operate" or "the offering has been or would be made with unreasonable amounts of underwriters' and sellers' discounts, commissions, or other compensation, or promoters' profits or participation, or unreasonable amounts or kinds of options." By 1985 a majority of states which had adopted the 1956 Act had adopted this approach to merit regulation rather than the earlier and broader "unfair, unjust or inequitable" standard that then applied in a minority of States.

RUSA Sections 306(a)(5) and (6) adopted provisions substantively identical to the 1956 Act and included in brackets an "unfair, unjust, or inequitable" alternative.

The National Securities Markets Improvement Act of 1996 subsequently preempted merit regulation of federal covered securities. See Section 102(7).

Sections 306(a)(7) and (b) take a different approach. Subject to the National Securities Markets Improvement Act of 1996, merit standards are retained but hortatory paragraph 306(b) encourages the administrator, to the extent practicable, to adopt, by rule or order, standards that provide notice to issuers of a state's merit standards. Notice will address one criticism of merit regulation. See generally 1 Louis Loss & Joel Seligman, Securities Regulation 111-124 (3d ed. rev. 1998). Statements of Policy of the North American Securities Administrator Association that have been adopted by a state would provide notice in compliance with Section 306(b). Similarly other state rules or orders could be adopted in the future to address new types of securities as they occur.

An order under Section 306(b) can be adopted after a securities registration statement has been filed. Under Section 306(b) an administrator, by rule or order, for example, could adopt a standard that would provide the basis for a stop order denying effectiveness to a development stage company that has no specific business purpose or plan or has indicated that its primary business plan is to engage in a merger or acquisition with an unidentified company, entity, or person. "Blank check offerings" are subject to Rule 419 adopted under the Securities Act of 1933. See Comment 3 to Section 202.

9.    Section 306(c) follows the 1956 Act and RUSA and allows an administrator up to 30 days after a registration statement becomes effective to institute a stop order proceeding on the basis of a fact or transaction known when the registration statement became effective. This is to avoid the necessity of an administrator issuing a stop order prematurely.

10.    Sections 306(d) and (e) assure each person subject to a stop order of notice, opportunity for a hearing, and findings of fact and conclusions of law contained in a record.

11.    An administrator must consider the public interest when issuing a stop order and may under Section 306(f) consider the public interest when modifying or vacating a stop order. See, e.g., TechnoMedical Lab., Inc. v. Utah Sec. Div., 744 P.2d 320, 324-325 (Utah Ct. App. 1987) (a state has a valid public interest in stopping the issuance of hundreds of thousands of public shares that did not comply with the disclosure requirements of securities registration); cf. stop orders under the Securities Act of 1933, see 1 Louis Loss & Joel Seligman, Securities Regulation 576-589 (3d ed. rev. 1998).

12.    As of September 2002 46 jurisdictions had adopted a form of Section 306(a)(7)(A) ("will tend to work a fraud or would so operate"); 34 jurisdictions had adopted a form of Section 306(a)(7)(B) ("unreasonable amounts of underwriters' and sellers' discounts, commissions, or other compensation, or promoter profits or participations, or unreasonable amounts or kinds of options"); and 16 jurisdictions had adopted a form of bracketed Section 306(a)(7)(C) ("terms that are unfair, unjust, or inequitable").

South Carolina Reporter's Comments

1.    Section 35-1-306(a)(1)-(6) is substantially similar to prior law found at former Section 35-1-1010(a) and (b)(i)-(ix). This section tests the registration statement as of the date of effectiveness. The minor nonsubstantive changes from prior law include Section 35-1-306(a)(2) specifying a "promoter of the issuer," and 35-1-306(a)(3) adding administrative stop orders.

2.    Section 35-1-306(a)(7)(A) and (B) is substantially similar to prior law found at former Section 35-1-1010(b)(v) and (vi).

3.    Proposed subsection 35-1-306(a)(7)(C) represented a substantial change from prior law. By substituting a standard of "unfair, unjust or inequitable" which has been adopted in sixteen states, proposed subsection (C) presented a broader standard than either the "fraud upon purchasers" standard or the list of specific inquiry areas, found in prior law found at former Section 35-1-1010(b)(v) and (vi). For these reasons, South Carolina declined to adopt proposed alternative Section 35-1-306(a)(7)(C).     Section 35-1-306(b) is a new provision. It is a merit review provision which complements the merit review approach in Section 35-1-306(a)(7). Prior provisions, found at S. C. Regs. 113-11 through 113-15, provided standards for the specific areas in Section 35-1-306(a)(7)(B).

4.    The new provision in Section 35-1-306(b) encourages, to the extent practicable, the publication of standards by rule adopted or order issued by the Securities Commissioner of the types of conduct which violate Section 35-1-306(a)(7). Such standards are found in prior law at S.C. Regs. 113-11 through 113-14.

5.    Section 35-1-306(c) is a new provision. Former Section 35-1-1020 provided a thirty-day period for the Securities Commissioner to institute a stop order proceeding based on facts known at the time of registration, but Section 35-1-1020 was subsequently repealed.

6.    Section 35-1-306(d) is substantially similar to prior law found at former Section 35-1-1030. The new provision gives the Security Commissioner the authority to resolve or deny a registration statement in addition to postponing or suspending the registration statement. The new provision also provides that the order becomes final if no hearing is requested or ordered.

7.    Section 35-1-306(e) is substantially similar to prior law found at former Section 35-1-1040.

8.    Section 35-1-306(f) refines prior law found at former Section 35-1-1050 by allowing a stop order to be modified or vacated where it is "necessary or appropriate" for the protection of investors.

Section 35-1-307.    The Securities Commissioner may waive or modify, in whole or in part, any or all of the requirements of Sections 35-1-302, 35-1-303, and 35-1-304(b) or the requirement of any information or record in a registration statement or in a periodic report filed pursuant to Section 35-1-305(i).

Official Comments

Prior Provision: RUSA Section 303(h). Section 307 follows RUSA Section 303(h) and empowers the administrator to waive or modify any of the requirements of 302, 303, 304(b), or the requirement of any information or record in a registration statement. An example would be the expedited procedure several states have adopted to coordinate with shelf registration under Rule 415 of the Securities Act of 1933. In waiving or modifying requirements the administrator must make a finding satisfying the requirements of Section 605(b).

South Carolina Reporter's Comments

This provision is new.

Article 4 Broker-Dealers, Agents, Investment Advisers,

Investment Adviser Representatives, and Federal Covered Investment Advisers

Section 35-1-401.    (a)    It is unlawful for a person to transact business in this State as a broker-dealer unless the person is registered under this chapter as a broker-dealer or is exempt from registration as a broker-dealer under subsection (b) or (d).

(b)    The following persons are exempt from the registration requirement of subsection (a):

(1)    a broker-dealer without a place of business in this State if its only transactions effected in this State are with:

(A)    the issuer of the securities involved in the transactions;

(B)    a broker-dealer registered as a broker-dealer under this chapter or not required to be registered as a broker-dealer under this chapter;

(C)    an institutional investor;

(D)    a nonaffiliated federal covered investment adviser with investments under management in excess of one hundred million dollars acting for the account of others pursuant to discretionary authority in a signed record;

(E)    a bona fide preexisting customer whose principal place of residence is not in this State and the person is registered as a broker-dealer under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 or not required to be registered under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 and is registered under the securities act of the State in which the customer maintains a principal place of residence;

(F)    a bona fide preexisting customer whose principal place of residence is in this State but was not present in this State when the customer relationship was established, if:

(i)        the broker-dealer is registered under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 or not required to be registered under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 and is registered under the securities laws of the State in which the customer relationship was established and where the customer had maintained a principal place of residence; and

(ii)    within forty-five days after the customer's first transaction in this State, the person files an application for registration as a broker-dealer in this State and a further transaction is not effected more than seventy-five days after the date on which the application is filed, or, if earlier, the date on which the Securities Commissioner notifies the person that the Securities Commissioner has denied the application for registration or has stayed the pendency of the application for good cause;

(G)    not more than three customers in this State during the previous twelve months, in addition to those customers specified in subparagraphs (A) through (F) and under subparagraph (H), if the broker-dealer is registered under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 or not required to be registered under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 and is registered under the securities act of the State in which the broker-dealer has its principal place of business; and

(H)    any other person exempted by rule adopted or order issued under this chapter; and

(2)    a person that deals solely in United States government securities and is supervised as a dealer in government securities by the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, the Comptroller of the Currency, the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, or the Office of Thrift Supervision.

(c)    It is unlawful for a broker-dealer, or for an issuer engaged in offering, offering to purchase, purchasing, or selling securities in this State, directly or indirectly, to employ or associate with an individual to engage in an activity related to securities transactions in this State if the registration of the individual is suspended or revoked or the individual is barred from employment or association with a broker-dealer, an issuer, an investment adviser, or a federal covered investment adviser by an order of the Securities Commissioner under this chapter, the Securities and Exchange Commission, or a self-regulatory organization. A broker-dealer or issuer does not violate this subsection if the broker-dealer or issuer did not know and in the exercise of reasonable care could not have known, of the suspension, revocation, or bar. Upon request from a broker-dealer or issuer and for good cause, an order under this chapter may modify or waive, in whole or in part, the application of the prohibitions of this subsection.

(d)    A rule adopted or order issued under this chapter may permit:

(1)    a broker-dealer that is registered in Canada or other foreign jurisdiction and that does not have a place of business in this State to effect transactions in securities with or for, or attempt to effect the purchase or sale of any securities by:

(A)    an individual from Canada or other foreign jurisdiction who is temporarily present in this State and with whom the broker-dealer had a bona fide customer relationship before the individual entered the United States;

(B)    an individual from Canada or other foreign jurisdiction who is present in this State and whose transactions are in a self-directed tax advantaged retirement plan of which the individual is the holder or contributor in that foreign jurisdiction; or

(C)    an individual who is present in this State, with whom the broker-dealer customer relationship arose while the individual was temporarily or permanently resident in Canada or the other foreign jurisdiction; and

(2)    an agent who represents a broker-dealer that is exempt under this subsection to effect transactions in securities or attempt to effect the purchase or sale of securities in this State as permitted for a broker-dealer described in paragraph (1).

Official Comments

Prior Provisions: 1956 Act Section 201; RUSA Sections 201-202.

1.    "Broker-dealer" is defined in Section 102(4). The scope of the Section 401(a) reference "to transact business in this State" is specified in Section 610. "Transacts a business" has been held to mean "more than a trivial or de minimis business." United States v. Schwartz, 464 F.2d 499, 506 (2d Cir. 1972), cert. denied, 409 U.S. 1009 (1972).

2.    Under Section 401(a) a person can be required to register as a securities broker-dealer only if the person transacts business in securities. See, e.g., AMR Realty Co. v. State, 373 A.2d 1002 (N.J. Supr. Ct. App. Div. 1977) (requirement that the transactions involve securities).

3.    "Bona fide" is a much construed term particularly in the U.C.C. context. See, e.g., MCC Proceeds, Inc. v. Advest, Inc., 743 N.Y.S.2d 1 (N.Y. A.D. 2002) (comparing bona fide to good faith standard).

4.    Section 401(b)(1)(D) was added to provide relief in situations where a broker-dealer is accepting orders from a sophisticated financial professional who is making the investment decisions for its customers.

5.    Under 401(b)(1)(E) and (F) preexisting customers must be bona fide. A principal place of residence, for example, normally would be the residence where the customer spends a majority of time. These exemptions were intended to facilitate ongoing broker-customer relationships with customers who have established a second or other residence for such purposes as a winter home (i.e. "snowbirds").

6.    Section 401(c) prohibits a broker-dealer or issuer from employing or associating with an individual in a capacity for which that individual has been suspended by the administrator. Violation of this provision does not result in strict liability. In order for a broker-dealer or issuer to be liable, the broker-dealer or issuer must have known or should have known of the administrator's order to the individual suspended or barred. Cf. Comment 17 to Section 412.

7.    Section 401(d) recognizes the increasingly transnational nature of securities brokerage and permits, if the administrator adopts a rule or order, transactions by a Canadian or a foreign broker-dealer with a person from Canada or other foreign jurisdiction who is resident in this State. This subsection is not self-executing and is effective only if the administrator adopts a rule or order.

8.    To give effect to action taken by rule or order under Section 401(d), there must be a transaction registration exemption that will enable securities transactions to take place in customer accounts involving the broker-dealers and agents contemplated in Section 401(d). See Sections 202 and 203.

South Carolina Reporter's Comments

1.    Section 35-1-401(a): This section follows existing law by requiring a broker-dealer to be either registered or exempt from registration.

2.    Section 35-1-401(b)(1): This section extends the exemption from registration in prior law to include broker-dealers dealing with a federal covered investment adviser, as set out in Section 35-1-401(b)(1)(D), and allows a window within which to register for broker-dealers who continue an existing "bona fide" relationship with a client who establishes a principal residence in South Carolina under Section 35-1-401(b)(1)(F). Section 35-1-401(b)(1)(G) modifies existing law by reducing the number of "other" customers from five to three and by excluding from that count all customers itemized in Section 35-1-401(b)(1)(A)-(H). Prior law excluded only issuers, financial and institutional investors, and other broker-dealers.

3.    Section 35-1-401(b)(2): This section modifies existing law by expanding the list of supervising federal agencies.

4.    Section 35-1-401(c): This section modifies existing law by removing strict liability of a broker-dealer or issuer for employing or associating an individual whose registration is suspended or revoked. Liability is contingent on whether such disciplinary action was or reasonably could have been known. A mechanism is provided to seek a waiver or modification of the prohibition against such employment or association. This section varies from the official text of the Uniform Securities Act by deleting the phrase "to the broker-dealer" in the last sentence to clarify that such waiver or modification may apply to an issuer as well as a broker-dealer.

5.    Section 35-1-401(d): This section allows the Securities Commissioner to adopt a rule or order exempting from registration a broker-dealer licensed in Canada or other foreign jurisdiction.

Section 35-1-402.    (a)    It is unlawful for an individual to transact business in this State as an agent unless the individual is registered under this chapter as an agent or is exempt from registration as an agent under subsection (b).

(b)    The following individuals are exempt from the registration requirement of subsection (a):

(1)    an individual who represents a broker-dealer in effecting transactions in this State limited to those described in Section 15(h)(2) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (15 U.S.C. Section 78o(h)(2));

(2)    an individual who represents a broker-dealer that is exempt under Section 35-1-401(b) or (d);

(3)    an individual who represents an issuer with respect to an offer or sale of the issuer's own securities or those of the issuer's parent or any of the issuer's subsidiaries, and who is not compensated in connection with the individual's participation by the payment of commissions or other remuneration based, directly or indirectly, on transactions in those securities;

(4)    an individual who represents an issuer and who effects transactions in the issuer's securities exempted by Section 35-1-202, other than Section 35-1-202(11) and (14);

(5)    an individual who represents an issuer that effects transactions solely in federal covered securities of the issuer, but an individual who effects transactions in a federal covered security under Section 18(b)(3) or 18(b)(4)(D) of the Securities Act of 1933 (15 U.S.C. Section 77r(b)(3) or 77r(b)(4)(D)) is not exempt if the individual is compensated in connection with the agent's participation by the payment of commissions or other remuneration based, directly or indirectly, on transactions in those securities;

(6)    an individual who represents a broker-dealer registered in this State under Section 35-1-401(a) or exempt from registration under Section 35-1-401(b) in the offer and sale of securities for an account of a nonaffiliated federal covered investment adviser with investments under management in excess of one hundred million dollars acting for the account of others pursuant to discretionary authority in a signed record;

(7)    an individual who represents an issuer in connection with the purchase of the issuer's own securities;

(8)    an individual who represents an issuer and who restricts participation to performing clerical or ministerial acts; or

(9)    any other individual exempted by rule adopted or order issued under this chapter.

(c)    The registration of an agent is effective only while the agent is employed by or associated with a broker-dealer registered under this chapter or an issuer that is offering, selling, or purchasing its securities in this State.

(d)    It is unlawful for a broker-dealer, or an issuer engaged in offering, selling, or purchasing securities in this State, to employ or associate with an agent who transacts business in this State on behalf of broker-dealers or issuers unless the agent is registered under subsection (a) or exempt from registration under subsection (b).

(e)    An individual may not act as an agent for more than one broker-dealer or one issuer at a time, unless the broker-dealer or the issuer for which the agent acts are affiliated by direct or indirect common control or are authorized by rule or order under this chapter.

Official Comments

Prior Provisions: RUSA Sections 201-202.

1.    "Agent" is defined in Section 102(2). The scope of the Section 402(a) reference to "transact business in this State" is specified in Section 610. An administrator may by rule or order take action under Section 401(d)(2) to address an agent.

2.    An independent contractor must be either a broker-dealer or an agent if the individual transacts business as a broker-dealer or agent. There is no other status permitted under this chapter for securities activities.

3.    A broker-dealer in violation of Section 402(a) may be disciplined under Section 412 and be subject to a civil or administrative enforcement action under Section 603 or 604.

4.    Under Sections 402(b)(3) and (5) an agent may be exempt if acting for an issuer and receiving compensation (for example, as a corporate executive),     as long as the compensation is not a commission or other remuneration based on transactions in the issuer's own securities. Such an agent could receive a salary with conventional benefits, including an annual bonus (related to his or her performance) as an executive, and still be within this exemption unless the agent is also being compensated directly or indirectly for participation in the specified securities transactions.

5.    Section 402(b)(6) was added to provide relief in situations where an agent is accepting orders from a sophisticated financial professional who is making the investment decisions for its customers.

6.    Ministerial or clerical acts in Section 402(b)(8) might include preparing routine written communications or responding to inquiries.

7.    Section 402(e) limits agents to a single employment or affiliation unless a rule or order of the administrator authorizes multiple affiliations. In any event an agent must be registered, see Section 402(a), or exempt from registration, see Section 402(b). Registration is effective only while an agent is employed by or associated with a broker-dealer or an issuer. See Section 402(c).

South Carolina Reporter's Comments

1.        Section 35-1-402(a): This section follows existing law by requiring an agent to be either registered or exempt from registration.

2.        Section 35-1-402(b)(1): This section continues prior law.

3.        Section 35-1-402(b)(2): This section continues prior law.

4.        Section 35-1-402(b)(3): This section broadens the existing exemption for uncompensated agents of an issuer to include any offer or sale of securities, whereas prior law limited the exemption to transactions involving employees, partners, officers or directors.

5.        Section 35-1-402(b)(4): This section continues prior law.

6.        Section 35-1-402(b)(5): This section continues prior law.

7.        Section 35-1-402(b)(6): This section mirrors the "sophisticated financial professional" exemption for broker-dealers in Section 35-1-401(b)(1)(D).

8.        Section 35-1-402(b)(7): This section is new.

9.        Section 35-1-402(b)(8): This section is new.

10.    Section 35-1-402(b)(9): This section continues prior law.

11.    Section 35-1-402(c): This section continues prior law.

12.    Section 35-1-402(d): This section continues prior law.

13.    Section 35-1-402(e): These provisions were previously found in S.C. Regs. 113-1.

Section 35-1-403.    (a)    It is unlawful for a person to transact business in this State as an investment adviser unless the person is registered under this chapter as an investment adviser or is exempt from registration as an investment adviser under subsection (b).

(b)    The following persons are exempt from the registration requirement of subsection (a):

(1)    a person without a place of business in this State that is registered under the securities act of the State in which the person has its principal place of business if its only clients in this State are:

(A)    federal covered investment advisers, investment advisers registered under this chapter, or broker-dealers registered under this chapter;

(B)    institutional investors;

(C)    bona fide preexisting clients whose principal places of residence are not in this State if the investment adviser is registered under the securities act of the State in which the clients maintain principal places of residence; or

(D)    any other client exempted by rule adopted or order issued under this chapter;

(2)    a person without a place of business in this State if the person has had, during the preceding twelve months, not more than five clients that are resident in this State in addition to those specified under paragraph (1); or

(3)    any other person exempted by rule adopted or order issued under this chapter.

(c)    It is unlawful for an investment adviser, directly or indirectly, to employ or associate with an individual to engage in an activity related to investment advice regarding securities in this State if the registration of the individual is suspended or revoked or the individual is barred from employment or association with an investment adviser, federal covered investment adviser, or broker-dealer by an order under this chapter, the Securities and Exchange Commission, or a self-regulatory organization, unless the investment adviser did not know, and in the exercise of reasonable care could not have known, of the suspension, revocation, or bar. Upon request from the investment adviser and for good cause, the Securities Commissioner, by order, may waive, in whole or in part, the application of the prohibitions of this subsection to the investment adviser.

(d)    It is unlawful for an investment adviser to employ or associate with an individual required to be registered under this chapter as an investment adviser representative who transacts business in this State on behalf of the investment adviser unless the individual is registered under Section 35-1-404(a) or is exempt from registration under Section 35-1-404(b).

Official Comments

Prior Provisions: 1956 Act Section 201; RUSA Sections 203-204.

1.    "Investment adviser" is defined in Section 102(15). The scope of the Section 403(a) reference to "transact business in this State" is specified in Section 610.

2.    Excluded from the definition of investment adviser in Section 102(15)(C) is a broker-dealer who receives no special compensation for investment advisory services. Such a broker-dealer would not have to register as both a broker-dealer and investment adviser in this State. A broker-dealer that does receive special compensation, on the other hand, would also meet the statutory definition of investment adviser and would be required to register in both capacities.

3.    Section 403(b)(2) is consistent with the National Securities Markets Improvement Act of 1996 which prohibits a State from regulating an investment adviser that does not have a place of business in this State and had fewer than six clients who were state residents during the preceding twelve months.

4.    Section 403(c) prohibits an investment adviser from employing an individual who is prohibited from such employment or association by the administrator. Violation of this provision does not result in strict liability. To be liable the investment adviser must have known or should have known of the administrator's order to the individual suspended or barred.

South Carolina Reporter's Comments

1.    Section 35-1-403(a): This section continues prior law. As Section 35-1-403(b)(1)(A) makes clear, federal covered investment advisors are exempt from this registration requirement.

2.    Section 35-1-403(b)(1): This section continues prior law but, in subsection (b)(1)(C) extends the "snow bird" exemption, i.e., customers with a second home in South Carolina, available to broker-dealers and agents to investment advisors.

3.    Section 35-1-403(c): This section mirrors similar provisions applicable to broker-dealers that an investment advisor knows or should have known of any disciplinary action against any individual employed or associated by it before facing liability.

4.    Section 35-1-403(d): This section continues prior law.

Section 35-1-404.    (a)    It is unlawful for an individual to transact business in this State as an investment adviser representative unless the individual is registered under this chapter as an investment adviser representative or is exempt from registration as an investment adviser representative under subsection (b).

(b)    The following individuals are exempt from the registration requirement of subsection (a):

(1)    an individual who is employed by or associated with an investment adviser that is exempt from registration under Section 35-1-403(b) or a federal covered investment adviser that is excluded from the notice filing requirements of Section 35-1-405; and

(2)    any other individual exempted by rule adopted or order issued under this chapter.

(c)    The registration of an investment adviser representative is not effective while the investment adviser representative is not employed by or associated with an investment adviser registered under this chapter or a federal covered investment adviser that has made or is required to make a notice filing under Section 35-1-405.

(d)    An individual may not transact business as an investment adviser representative for more than one investment adviser or federal covered investment adviser unless a rule adopted or order issued under this chapter allows an individual to act as an investment adviser representative for more than one investment adviser or federal covered investment adviser.

(e)    It is unlawful for an individual acting as an investment adviser representative, directly or indirectly, to conduct business in this State on behalf of an investment adviser or a federal covered investment adviser if the registration of the individual as an investment adviser representative is suspended or revoked or the individual is barred from employment or association with an investment adviser or a federal covered investment adviser by an order under this chapter, the Securities and Exchange Commission, or a self-regulatory organization. Upon request from a federal covered investment adviser and for good cause, the Securities Commissioner, by order issued, may waive, in whole or in part, the application of the requirements of this subsection to the federal covered investment adviser.

(f)    An investment adviser registered under this chapter, a federal covered investment adviser that has filed a notice under Section 35-1-405, or a broker-dealer registered under this chapter is not required to employ or associate with an individual as an investment adviser representative if the only compensation paid to the individual for a referral of investment advisory clients is paid to an investment adviser registered under this chapter, a federal covered investment adviser who has filed a notice under Section 35-1-405, or a broker-dealer registered under this chapter with which the individual is employed or associated as an investment adviser representative.

Official Comments

No Prior Provision.

1.    "Investment adviser representative" is defined in Section 102(16). The scope of the Section 404(a) reference to "transacts business in this State" is specified in Section 610.

2.    Neither the 1956 act nor RUSA provided for the registration of investment adviser representatives. In recent years, however, the states increasingly have done so.

3.    Under this chapter a sole practitioner may register as an investment adviser. See Section 403. The Investment Adviser Registration Depository currently provides for entry of the legal name of the individual as the investment adviser and the entry of any name the individual is doing business under that is different from the individual's name. A sole practitioner is not required to register under Section 404 as an investment adviser representative, unless the administrator requires such registration.

4.    Section 404(e) prohibits an investment adviser representative from association with a federal covered investment adviser when such association is prohibited by an order of the administrator. Unlike similar provisions in Sections 401 and 403, there is no culpability requirement that the investment adviser representative "knows or in the exercise of reasonable care should have known" of a suspension or bar because the order should be received by the investment adviser representative. As with Sections 401 and 403, the administrator may waive this prohibition. Cf. Comment 17 to Section 412.

5.    The administrator may adopt rules or orders under Section 404(f) in accordance with Section 605. The Securities and Exchange Commission has adopted a rule that addresses referral fees in Rule 206(4)-3 of the Investment Advisers Act of 1940.

6.    For a state that intends to extend Section 404(f) to those broker-dealers and investment advisers who are not required to register and those federal covered investment advisers not required to file a notice, this subsection should read:

(f)    [Referral Fees.] An investment adviser registered under this [chapter], a federal covered investment adviser that has filed a notice under Section 405, or a broker-dealer registered under this [chapter] is not required to employ or associate with an individual as an investment adviser representative if the only compensation paid to the individual for a referral of investment advisory clients is paid to an investment adviser registered under this [chapter], or not required to register under this [chapter], a federal covered investment who has filed a notice under Section 405 or is not required to file a notice under Section 405, or a broker-dealer registered under this [chapter] or not required to register under this [chapter] with which the individual is employed or associated as an investment adviser representative.

South Carolina Reporter's Comments

1.    Section 35-1-404(a): This section continues prior law.

2.    Section 35-1-404(b): This section clarifies existing law but makes no substantive changes.

3.    Section 35-1-404(c): This section continues prior law.

4.    Section 35-1-404(d): This section is new. Prior law did not prohibit an investment adviser representative from multiple associations, but this section specifically allows the Securities Commissioner to do so.

5.    Section 35-1-404(e): This section specifically prohibits a representative under suspension or revocation of a license from association with an investment adviser, including a federally covered investment adviser, when such association is prohibited by the order of suspending or revoking the license.

6.    Section 35-1-404(f): This section is new.

Section 35-1-405.    (a)    Except with respect to a federal covered investment adviser described in subsection (b), it is unlawful for a federal covered investment adviser to transact business in this State as a federal covered investment adviser unless the federal covered investment adviser complies with subsection (c).

(b)    The following federal covered investment advisers are not required to comply with subsection (c):

(1)    a federal covered investment adviser without a place of business in this State if its only clients in this State are:

(A)    federal covered investment advisers, investment advisers registered under this chapter, and broker-dealers registered under this chapter;

(B)    institutional investors;

(C)    bona fide preexisting clients whose principal places of residence are not in this State; or

(D)    other clients specified by rule adopted or order issued under this chapter;

(2)    a federal covered investment adviser without a place of business in this State if the person has had, during the preceding twelve months, not more than five clients that are resident in this State in addition to those specified under paragraph (1); and

(3)    any other person excluded by rule adopted or order issued under this chapter.

(c)    A person acting as a federal covered investment adviser, not excluded under subsection (b), shall file a notice, a consent to service of process complying with Section 35-1-611, and such records as have been filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission under the Investment Advisers Act of 1940 required by rule adopted or order issued under this chapter and pay the fees specified in Section 35-1-410(e).

(d)    The notice under subsection (c) becomes effective upon its filing.

Official Comments

No Prior Provision.

1.    "Federal covered investment adviser" is defined in Section 102(6). The scope of the Section 405(a) reference to "transacts business in this State" is specified in Section 610.

2.    Section 405(b)(2) is necessitated by the National Securities Markets Improvement Act of 1996 and is intended to coordinate this chapter with the Investment Advisers Act of 1940.

3.    Section 404(c) provides limits on those who can be employed by or associated with a federal covered investment adviser.

4.    The succession provision of Section 407(a) is available to a federal covered investment adviser who has filed a notice under Section 405.

South Carolina Reporter's Comments

Section 35-1-405: This entire section is new.

Section 35-1-406.    (a)    A person shall register as a broker-dealer, agent, investment adviser, or investment adviser representative by filing an application and a consent to service of process complying with Section 35-1-611, passing one or more examinations as required by the Securities Commissioner, paying the fee specified pursuant to Section 35-1-410, and paying any reasonable fees charged by the designee of the Securities Commissioner for processing the filing. The application must contain:

(1)    the information or record required for the filing of a uniform application; and

(2)    upon request by the Securities Commissioner, any other financial or other information or record that the Securities Commissioner determines is appropriate.

(b)    If the information or record contained in an application filed under subsection (a) is or becomes inaccurate or incomplete in a material respect, the registrant shall promptly file a correcting amendment.

(c)    If an order is not in effect and a proceeding is not pending under Section 35-1-412, registration becomes effective at noon on the forty-fifth day after a completed application is filed, unless the registration is denied. A rule adopted or order issued under this chapter may set an earlier effective date or may defer the effective date until noon on the forty-fifth day after the filing of any amendment completing the application.

(d)    A registration is effective until midnight on December thirty-first of the year for which the application for registration is filed. Unless an order is in effect under Section 35-1-412, a registration may be automatically renewed each year by filing such records as are required by rule adopted or order issued under this chapter, by meeting the filing fee and examination requirements specified pursuant to Section 35-1-410, and by paying costs charged by the designee of the Securities Commissioner for processing the filings.

(e)    A rule adopted or order issued under this chapter may impose other conditions, not inconsistent with the National Securities Markets Improvement Act of 1996. An order issued under this chapter may waive, in whole or in part, specific requirements in connection with registration as are in the public interest and for the protection of investors.

Official Comments

Prior Provisions: 1956 Act Section 202; RUSA Sections 205, 208.

1.    Under Section 406(a), the administrator is authorized to accept standardized forms such as Form B-D for broker-dealers; Form U-4 for agents and investment adviser representatives; and Form ADV for investment advisers, which are filed today through such designees as the Web-CRD or the Investment Adviser Registration Depository (IARD). While this chapter generally encourages uniformity, Sections 406(a) and (e) are intended to give the administrator authority to augment or waive disclosure requirements in appropriate cases.

2.    Section 406(a) eliminates the listing of specified information delineated in Section 202 of the 1956 Act. As with RUSA Section 205, the intent is to facilitate coordination with widely used standardized forms.

3.    Under this chapter a single person may act both as an agent and investment adviser representative if the person satisfies applicable registration requirements to be both an agent and investment adviser representative.

South Carolina Reporter's Comments

1.    Section 35-1-406(a): This section allows the Securities Commissioner to accept standardized forms and changes prior law by removing a listing of information generally contained on such forms. Section 35-1-406(a)(2) gives the Securities Commissioner the ability to obtain additional relevant information.

2.    Section 35-1-406(b): This section continues prior law.

3.    Section 35-1-406(c): This section changes prior law by requiring the Securities Commissioner to act within forty-five days of the filing of an application or it becomes effective. The Securities Commissioner may shorten this time period by rule, or delay the running of the forty-five-day period from the date of an amendment to the application.

4.    Section 35-1-406(d): This section continues prior law.

5.    Section 35-1-406(e): This section is new and gives the Securities Commissioner discretion to impose the conditions not inconsistent with federal law.

Section 35-1-407.    (a)    A broker-dealer or investment adviser may succeed to the current registration of another broker-dealer or investment adviser or a notice filing of a federal covered investment adviser, and a federal covered investment adviser may succeed to the current registration of an investment adviser or notice filing of another federal covered investment adviser, by filing as a successor an application for registration pursuant to Section 35-1-401 or 35-1-403 or a notice pursuant to Section 35-1-405 for the unexpired portion of the current registration or notice filing.

(b)    A broker-dealer or investment adviser that changes its form of organization or State of incorporation or organization may continue its registration by filing an amendment to its registration if the change does not involve a material change in its financial condition or management. The amendment becomes effective when filed or on a date designated by the registrant in its filing. The new organization is a successor to the original registrant for the purposes of this chapter. If there is a material change in financial condition or management, the broker-dealer or investment adviser shall file a new application for registration. A predecessor registered under this chapter shall stop conducting its securities business other than winding down transactions and shall file for withdrawal of broker-dealer or investment adviser registration within forty-five days after filing its amendment to effect succession.

(c)    A broker-dealer or investment adviser that changes its name may continue its registration by filing an amendment to its registration. The amendment becomes effective when filed or on a date designated by the registrant.

(d)    A change of control of a broker-dealer or investment adviser may be made in accordance with a rule adopted or order issued under this chapter.

Official Comments

Prior Provisions:     1956 Act Section 202(c); RUSA 210.

1.    Section 407 is intended to avoid unnecessary interruptions of business by specifying procedures for a successor broker-dealer or investment adviser; a broker-dealer or investment adviser to maintain its registration if it changes its form of organization or name; or, in accordance with a rule or order adopted under this chapter, a change of control of a broker-dealer or investment adviser.

2.    There is no filing fee under Section 407.

South Carolina Reporter's Comments

Section 35-1-407: This section substantially continues prior law. Subsection (d) is not intended to imply that a change of control is not permitted in the absence of a rule or order, but rather it gives the Securities Commissioner the authority to enact such a rule or order.

Section 35-1-408.    (a)    If an agent registered under this chapter terminates employment by or association with a broker-dealer or issuer, or if an investment adviser representative registered under this chapter terminates employment by or association with an investment adviser or federal covered investment adviser, or if either registrant terminates activities that require registration as an agent or investment adviser representative, the broker-dealer, issuer, investment adviser, or federal covered investment adviser shall promptly file a notice of termination. If the registrant learns that the broker-dealer, issuer, investment adviser, or federal covered investment adviser has not filed the notice, the registrant may do so.

(b)    If an agent registered under this chapter terminates employment by or association with a broker-dealer registered under this chapter and begins employment by or association with another broker-dealer registered under this chapter; or if an investment adviser representative registered under this chapter terminates employment by or association with an investment adviser registered under this chapter or a federal covered investment adviser that has filed a notice under Section 35-1-405 and begins employment by or association with another investment adviser registered under this chapter or a federal covered investment adviser that has filed a notice under Section 35-1-405; then upon the filing by or on behalf of the registrant, within thirty days after the termination, of an application for registration that complies with the requirement of Section 35-1-406(a) and payment of the filing fee required under Section 35-1-410, the registration of the agent or investment adviser representative is:

(1)    immediately effective as of the date of the completed filing, if the agent's Central Registration Depository record or successor record or the investment adviser representative's Investment Adviser Registration Depository record or successor record does not contain a new or amended disciplinary disclosure within the previous twelve months; or

(2)    temporarily effective as of the date of the completed filing, if the agent's Central Registration Depository record or successor record or the investment adviser representative's Investment Adviser Registration Depository record or successor record contains a new or amended disciplinary disclosure within the preceding twelve months.

(c)    The Securities Commissioner may withdraw a temporary registration if there are or were grounds for discipline as specified in Section 35-1-412 and the Securities Commissioner does so within thirty days after the filing of the application. If the Securities Commissioner does not withdraw the temporary registration within the thirty-day period, registration becomes automatically effective on the thirty-first day after filing.

(d)    The Securities Commissioner may prevent the effectiveness of a transfer of an agent or investment adviser representative under subsection (b)(1) or (2) based on the public interest and the protection of investors.

(e)    If the Securities Commissioner determines that a registrant or applicant for registration is no longer in existence or has ceased to act as a broker-dealer, agent, investment adviser, or investment adviser representative, or is the subject of an adjudication of incapacity or is subject to the control of a committee, conservator, or guardian, or cannot reasonably be located, a rule adopted or order issued under this chapter may require the registration be canceled or terminated or the application denied. The Securities Commissioner may reinstate a canceled or terminated registration, with or without hearing, and may make the registration retroactive.

Official Comments

Prior Provision: 1956 Act Section 204(d).

1.    Under Sections 402(c) and 404(c) registration of an agent or investment adviser representative is effective only while the agent or investment adviser representative is employed by or associated with a broker-dealer, issuer, or investment adviser, as may be the case. Section 408(a) specifies a procedure to inform the administrator of a notice of termination.

2.    To expedite transfer to a new broker-dealer or investment adviser, Section 408(b) provides a procedure by which agents or investment adviser representative registration will be effective immediately as of the date of new employment when there is no new or added disciplinary disclosure in the relevant Central Research Depository or Investment Adviser Registration Depository records. Both electronic systems are currently administered by the National Association of Securities Dealers. Section 408(d) is intended to ensure that the administrator has the authority to prevent immediate effectiveness in appropriate cases.

South Carolina Reporter's Comments

Section 35-1-408: Prior law required prompt notification of the termination of employment of an agent or representative. This section continues that obligation, but also includes, in Section 35-1-408(b), provisions to expedite the transfer to a new broker-dealer or investment adviser. That temporary registration may be revoked by the Securities Commissioner under Section 35-1-408(c).

Section 35-1-409.    Withdrawal of registration by a broker-dealer, agent, investment adviser, or investment adviser representative becomes effective sixty days after the filing of the application to withdraw or within any shorter period as provided by rule adopted or order issued under this chapter unless a revocation or suspension proceeding is pending when the application is filed. If a proceeding is pending, withdrawal becomes effective when and upon such conditions as required by rule adopted or order issued under this chapter. The Securities Commissioner may institute a revocation or suspension proceeding under Section 35-1-412 within one year after the withdrawal became effective automatically and issue a revocation or suspension order as of the last date on which registration was effective if a proceeding is not pending.

Official Comments

Prior Provisions: 1956 Act Section 204(e); RUSA Section 214.

1.    This section generally follows the 1956 Act Section 204(e) and RUSA Section 214. This section does not affect any applicant's privilege of withdrawal of an application from registration before the registration becomes effective. It is simply designed to prevent withdrawal of an effective registration under fire. The last sentence preserves the ability of the administrator to initiate an action under Section 412 when the administrator does not know of a reason to object to withdrawal until after withdrawal has become effective.

2.    Ordinarily today a registrant will file a standardized form such as Form U-5, BD-W or ADV-W to withdraw registration.

South Carolina Reporter's Comments

Section 35-1-409: This section extends the time period for the effective date of withdrawal to sixty days, but otherwise substantially follows prior law.

Section 35-1-410.    (a)    The Securities Commissioner shall establish fees by rule or order for:

(1)    an initial filing of an application as a broker-dealer and renewal of an application by a broker-dealer for registration;

(2)    an application for registration as an agent and renewal of registration as an agent;

(3)    an application for registration as an investment adviser and renewal of registration as an investment adviser;

(4)    an application for registration as an investment adviser representative, a renewal of registration as an investment adviser representative, and a change of registration as an investment adviser representative; and

(5)    an initial fee and annual notice fee for a federal covered investment adviser required to file a notice under Section 35-1-405.

(b)    A person required to pay a filing or notice fee under this section may transmit the fee through or to a designee as a rule or order provides under this chapter.

(c)    When an application or other filing fee is denied or withdrawn, the filing fee shall not be refunded, except upon order by the Securities Commissioner.

(d)    A rule adopted or order issued under this chapter may require that an examination, including an examination developed or approved by an organization of securities regulators, be successfully completed by a class of individuals or all individuals. An order issued under this chapter may waive, in whole or in part, an examination as to an individual and a rule adopted under this chapter may waive, in whole or in part, an examination as to a class of individuals if the Securities Commissioner determines that the examination is not necessary or appropriate in the public interest and for the protection of investors.

Official Comments

Prior Provisions: 1956 Act Section 202(b); RUSA Section 206.

1.    Each state should determine the appropriate fee for each type of registration and for each type of renewal, denial, or withdrawal of a registration.

2.    Similarly each state should determine whether it wishes to remove the brackets from Section 410(g) and charge a single fee for dually registered agents and investment adviser representatives.

South Carolina Reporter's Comments

1.    Section 35-1-410: Prior law allowed the Securities Commissioner to establish filing fees by rule or order. This section continues that practice.

2.    Section 35-1-410(d): This section, which deals with examinations, is found in the Model Act at Section 412(e). It is more appropriately located in this section relating to filing fees than in Section 35-1-412, which deals with disciplinary actions.

Section 35-1-411.    (a)    Subject to Section 15(h) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (15 U.S.C. Section 78o(h)) or Section 222 of the Investment Advisers Act of 1940 (15 U.S.C. Section 80b-22), a rule adopted or order issued under this chapter may establish minimum financial requirements for broker-dealers registered or required to be registered under this chapter and investment advisers registered or required to be registered under this chapter.

(b)    Subject to Section 15(h) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (15 U.S.C. Section 78o(h)) or Section 222(b) of the Investment Advisers Act of 1940 (15 U.S.C. Section 80b-22), a broker-dealer registered or required to be registered under this chapter and an investment adviser registered or required to be registered under this chapter shall file such financial reports as are required by a rule adopted or order issued under this chapter. If the information contained in a record filed under this subsection is or becomes inaccurate or incomplete in a material respect, the registrant shall promptly file a correcting amendment.

(c)    Subject to Section 15(h) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (15 U.S.C. Section 78o(h)) or Section 222 of the Investment Advisers Act of 1940 (15 U.S.C. Section 80b-22):

(1)    a broker-dealer registered or required to be registered under this chapter and an investment adviser registered or required to be registered under this chapter shall make and maintain the accounts, correspondence, memoranda, papers, books, and other records required by rule adopted or order issued under this chapter;

(2)    broker-dealer records required to be maintained under paragraph (1) may be maintained in any form of data storage acceptable under Section 17(a) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (15 U.S.C. Section 78q(a)) if they are readily accessible to the Securities Commissioner; and

(3)    investment adviser records required to be maintained under paragraph (1) may be maintained in any form of data storage required by rule adopted or order issued under this chapter.

(d)    The records of a broker-dealer registered or required to be registered under this chapter and of an investment adviser registered or required to be registered under this chapter are subject to such reasonable periodic, special, or other audits or inspections by a representative of the Securities Commissioner, within or without this State, as the Securities Commissioner considers necessary or appropriate in the public interest and for the protection of investors. An audit or inspection may be made at any time and without prior notice. The Securities Commissioner may copy, and remove for audit or inspection copies of, all records the Securities Commissioner reasonably considers necessary or appropriate to conduct the audit or inspection. The Securities Commissioner may assess a reasonable charge for conducting an audit or inspection under this subsection.

(e)    Subject to Section 15(h) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (15 U.S.C. Section 78o(h)) or Section 222 of the Investment Advisers Act of 1940 (15 U.S.C. Section 80b-22), a rule adopted or order issued under this chapter may require a broker-dealer or investment adviser that has custody of or discretionary authority over funds or securities of a customer or client to obtain insurance or post a bond or other satisfactory form of security in an amount prescribed by rule or order. The Securities Commissioner may determine the requirements of the insurance, bond, or other satisfactory form of security. Insurance or a bond or other satisfactory form of security may not be required of a broker-dealer registered under this chapter whose net capital exceeds, or of an investment adviser registered under this chapter whose minimum financial requirements exceed, the amounts required by rule or order under this chapter. The insurance, bond, or other satisfactory form of security must permit an action by a person to enforce any liability on the insurance, bond, or other satisfactory form of security if instituted within the time limitations in Section 35-1-509(j)(2).

(f)    Subject to Section 15(h) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (15 U.S.C. Section 78o(h)) or Section 222 of the Investment Advisers Act of 1940 (15 U.S.C. Section 80b-22), an agent may not have custody of funds or securities of a customer except under the supervision of a broker-dealer and an investment adviser representative may not have custody of funds or securities of a client except under the supervision of an investment adviser or a federal covered investment adviser. A rule adopted or order issued under this chapter may prohibit, limit, or impose conditions on a broker-dealer regarding custody of funds or securities of a customer and on an investment adviser regarding custody of securities or funds of a client.

(g)    With respect to an investment adviser registered or required to be registered under this chapter, a rule adopted or order issued under this chapter may require that information or other record be furnished or disseminated to clients or prospective clients in this State as necessary or appropriate in the public interest and for the protection of investors and advisory clients.

(h)    A rule adopted or order issued under this chapter may require an individual registered under Section 35-1-402 or 35-1-404 to participate in a continuing education program approved by the Securities and Exchange Commission and administered by a self-regulatory organization or, in the absence of such a program, a rule adopted or order issued under this chapter may require continuing education for an individual registered under Section 35-1-404.

Official Comments

Prior Provisions: 1956 Act Sections 102(c), 202(d) and (e) and 203; RUSA Sections 209, 211 and 215.

1.    Sections 411(a) through (c) and (e) through (f) implicitly refer to "capital, custody, margin, financial responsibility, making and keeping records, bonding, or financial or operational reporting requirements." Under the National Securities Markets Improvement Act of 1996, States may not impose such requirements on covered broker-dealers and investment advisers greater than those specified in Section 15(h) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 and Section 222 of the Investment Advisors Act of 1940.

2.    Minimum financial requirements must be maintained during the entire time a person is registered and not merely at the time of the registration. See, e.g., National Grange Mut. Ins. Co. v. Prioleau, 236 S.E.2d 808 (S.C. 1977) (continuing bond requirement); Ridgeway, McLeod & Assoc., 281 A.2d 390 (N.J. Super. Ct. App. Div. 1971) (continuing minimum capital requirement).

3.    The duty in Section 411(b) to correct or update information is limited to material information which a reasonable investor would continue to consider important in deciding whether to purchase or sell securities. Cf. TSC Indus., Inc. v. Northway, Inc., 426 U.S. 438, 444-450 (1970); Securities Act Release No. 6084, 17 SEC Dock. 1048, 1054 (1979) ("persons are continuing to rely on all or any material portion of the statements").

4.    Section 411(c)(1) authorizes the administrator to require all records to be preserved for the period the administrator prescribes by rule or order.

5.    Rule 17a-4 is the current rule under Section 17(a) of the Securities Exchange Act referred to in Section 411(c)(2) that addresses acceptable forms of data storage.

6.    The administrator's power to copy and examine records in Section 411(d) is subject to all applicable privileges. See, e.g., 10 Louis Loss & Joel Seligman, Securities Regulation 4921-4925 n.69 (3d ed. rev. 1996).     The power in Section 411(d) to conduct audits or inspections is distinguishable from the administrator's enforcement powers under Section 602. No subpoena is necessary under Section 411(d). Failure to submit to a reasonable audit or inspection is a violation of this chapter which may result in an action by the administrator under Section 412(d)(8), a criminal prosecution under Section 508, or an injunction under Section 603. An unreasonable audit, inspection or demand for information or documents would be subject to challenge in an appropriate court.

7.    Section 411(f) broadens 1956 Act Section 102(c) and RUSA Section 215 to apply to agents as well as investment adviser representatives. Subject to Section 15(h) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 and Section 222 of the Investment Adviser Act of 1940, the administrator is given broad authority to prohibit, limit, or condition custody arrangements.

8.    Section 411(g) parallels Rule 204-3, adopted under the Investment Advisers Act of 1940, popularly known as the brochure rule, which authorizes the SEC to require dissemination to investment adviser clients of specified information about the investment adviser and investment advice.

South Carolina Reporter's Comments

1.    Section 35-1-411: This section recognizes the limitation of State control over federal covered broker-dealers and investment advisers. The record keeping requirements under prior law were set out in S.C. Regs. 113-7.

2.    Section 35-1-411(h) allows the Securities Commissioner to adopt a continuing education requirement.

3.    This section varies from the uniform text in Section 35-1-411(e) by allowing the Securities Commissioner to set the amount of bond or other security by rule or order.

Section 35-1-412.    (a)    If the Securities Commissioner finds that the order is in the public interest and subsection (d) authorizes the action, an order issued under this chapter may deny an application, or may condition or limit registration of an applicant to be a broker-dealer, agent, investment adviser, or investment adviser representative, and, if the applicant is a broker-dealer or investment adviser, of a partner, officer, director, or person having a similar status or performing similar functions, or a person directly or indirectly in control, of the broker-dealer or investment adviser.

(b)    If the Securities Commissioner finds that the order is in the public interest and subsection (d) authorizes the action, an order issued under this chapter may revoke, suspend, condition, or limit the registration of a registrant and, if the registrant is a broker-dealer or investment adviser, of a partner, officer, director, or person having a similar status or performing similar functions, or a person directly or indirectly in control, of the broker-dealer or investment adviser. However, the Securities Commissioner may not:

(1)    institute a revocation or suspension proceeding under this subsection based on an order issued under a law of another State that is reported to the Securities Commissioner or a designee of the Securities Commissioner more than one year after the date of the order on which it is based; or

(2)    under subsection (d)(5)(A) or (B), issue an order on the basis of an order issued under the securities act of another State unless the other order was based on conduct for which subsection (d) would authorize the action had the conduct occurred in this State.

(c)    If the Securities Commissioner finds that the order is in the public interest and subsection (d)(1) through (6), (8), (9), (10), or (12) and (13) authorizes the action, an order under this chapter may censure, impose a bar, and/or impose a civil penalty in an amount not to exceed $10,000 for each violation, on a registrant, and, if the registrant is a broker-dealer or investment adviser, a partner, officer, director, or person having a similar status or performing similar functions, or a person directly or indirectly in control, of the broker-dealer or investment adviser.

(d)    A person may be disciplined under subsections (a) through (c) if the person:

(1)    has filed an application for registration in this State under this chapter or the predecessor chapter within the previous 10 years, which, as of the effective date of registration or as of any date after filing in the case of an order denying effectiveness, was incomplete in any material respect or contained a statement that, in light of the circumstances under which it was made, was false or misleading with respect to a material fact;

(2)    wilfully violated or wilfully failed to comply with this chapter or the predecessor chapter or a rule adopted or order issued under this chapter or the predecessor chapter within the previous 10 years;

(3)    has been convicted of a felony or within the previous 10 years has been convicted of a misdemeanor involving a security, a commodity future or option contract, or an aspect of a business involving securities, commodities, investments, franchises, insurance, banking, or finance;

(4)    is enjoined or restrained by a court of competent jurisdiction in an action instituted by the Securities Commissioner under this chapter or the predecessor chapter, a State, the Securities and Exchange Commission, or the United States from engaging in or continuing an act, practice, or course of business involving an aspect of a business involving securities, commodities, investments, franchises, insurance, banking, or finance;

(5)    is the subject of an order, issued after notice and opportunity for hearing by:

(A)    the securities or other financial services regulator of a State or the Securities and Exchange Commission or other federal agency denying, revoking, barring, or suspending registration as a broker-dealer, agent, investment adviser, federal covered investment adviser, or investment adviser representative;

(B)    the securities regulator of a State or the Securities and Exchange Commission against a broker-dealer, agent, investment adviser, investment adviser representative, or federal covered investment adviser;

(C)    the Securities and Exchange Commission or a self-regulatory organization suspending or expelling the registrant from membership in the self-regulatory organization;

(D)    a court adjudicating a United States Postal Service fraud order;

(E)    the insurance regulator of a State denying, suspending, or revoking registration as an insurance agent; or

(F)    a depository institution or financial services regulator suspending or barring the person from the depository institution or other financial services business;

(6)    is the subject of an adjudication or determination, after notice and opportunity for hearing, by the Securities and Exchange Commission, the Commodity Futures Trading Commission; the Federal Trade Commission; a federal depository institution regulator, or a depository institution, insurance, or other financial services regulator of a State that the person wilfully violated the Securities Act of 1933, the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, the Investment Advisers Act of 1940, the Investment Company Act of 1940, or the Commodity Exchange Act, the securities or commodities law of a State, or a federal or state law under which a business involving investments, franchises, insurance, banking, or finance is regulated;

(7)    is insolvent, either because the person's liabilities exceed the person's assets or because the person cannot meet the person's obligations as they mature, but the Securities Commissioner may not enter an order against an applicant or registrant under this paragraph without a finding of insolvency as to the applicant or registrant;

(8)    refuses to allow or otherwise impedes the Securities Commissioner from conducting an audit or inspection under Section 35-1-411(d) or refuses access to a registrant's office to conduct an audit or inspection under Section 35-1-411(d);

(9)    has failed to reasonably supervise an agent, investment adviser representative, or other individual, if the agent, investment adviser representative, or other individual was subject to the person's supervision and committed a violation of this chapter or the predecessor chapter or a rule adopted or order issued under this chapter or the predecessor chapter within the previous 10 years;

(10)    has not paid the proper filing fee within 30 days after having been notified by the Securities Commissioner of a deficiency, but the Securities Commissioner shall vacate an order under this paragraph when the deficiency is corrected;

(11)    after notice and opportunity for a hearing, has been found within the previous 10 years:

(A)    by a court of competent jurisdiction to have wilfully violated the laws of a foreign jurisdiction under which the business of securities, commodities, investment, franchises, insurance, banking, or finance is regulated;

(B)    to have been the subject of an order of a securities regulator of a foreign jurisdiction denying, revoking, or suspending the right to engage in the business of securities as a broker-dealer, agent, investment adviser, investment adviser representative, or similar person; or

(C)    to have been suspended or expelled from membership by or participation in a securities exchange or securities association operating under the securities laws of a foreign jurisdiction;

(12)    is the subject of a cease and desist order issued by the Securities and Exchange Commission or issued under the securities, commodities, investment, franchise, banking, finance, or insurance laws of a State;

(13)    has engaged in dishonest or unethical practices in the securities, commodities, investment, franchise, banking, finance, or insurance business within the previous 10 years; or

(14)    is not qualified on the basis of factors such as training, experience, and knowledge of the securities business. However, in the case of an application by an agent for a broker-dealer that is a member of a self-regulatory organization or by an individual for registration as an investment adviser representative, a denial order may not be based on this paragraph if the individual has successfully completed all examinations required by Section 35-1-410(d). The Securities Commissioner may require an applicant for registration under Section 35-1-402 or 35-1-404 who has not been registered in a State within the two years preceding the filing of an application in this State to successfully complete an examination.

(e)    Reserved

(f)    The Securities Commissioner may suspend or deny an application summarily; restrict, condition, limit, or suspend a registration; or censure, bar, or impose a civil penalty on a registrant before final determination of an administrative proceeding. Upon the issuance of an order, the Securities Commissioner shall promptly notify each person subject to the order that the order has been issued, the reasons for the action, and that within 15 days after the receipt of a request in a record from the person the matter will be scheduled for a hearing. If a hearing is not requested and none is ordered by the Securities Commissioner within 30 days after the date of service of the order, the order becomes final by operation of law. If a hearing is requested or ordered, the Securities Commissioner, after notice of and opportunity for hearing to each person subject to the order, may modify or vacate the order or extend the order until final determination.

(g)    An order issued may not be issued under this section, except under subsection (f), without:

(1)    appropriate notice to the applicant or registrant;

(2)    opportunity for hearing; and

(3)    findings of fact and conclusions of law in a record.

(h)    A person that controls, directly or indirectly, a person not in compliance with this section may be disciplined by order of the Securities Commissioner under subsections (a) through (c) to the same extent as the noncomplying person, unless the controlling person did not know, and in the exercise of reasonable care could not have known, of the existence of conduct that is a ground for discipline under this section.

(i)        The Securities Commissioner may not institute a proceeding under subsection (a), (b), or (c) based solely on material facts actually known by the Securities Commissioner unless an investigation or the proceeding is instituted within one year after the Securities Commissioner actually acquires knowledge of the material facts.

Official Comments

Prior Provisions: 1956 Act Section 204; RUSA Sections 207, 212-213.

1.    Section 412 generally follows Section 204 of the 1956 Act and Sections 207 and 212-213 of RUSA, but has been modified to reflect subsequent developments that have broadened the scope and remedies of counterpart federal and state statutes.

2.    Section 412 authorizes the administrator to seek a sanction based on the seriousness of the misconduct. Under Section 412 the administrator must prove that the denial, revocation, suspension, cancellation, withdrawal, restriction, condition, or limitation both is (1) in the public interest and (2) involves one of the enumerated grounds in Section 412(d). See, e.g., Mayflower Sec. Co., Inc. v. Bureau of Sec., 312 A.2d 497 (N.J. 1973). The "public interest" is a much litigated concept that has come to have settled meanings. See generally 6 L. Loss & J. Seligman, Securities Regulation 3103.5-3103.18 (3d ed. rev. 2002) (under federal securities laws). The public interest will not require imposition of a sanction for every minor or technical violation of subsection (d).

3.    The term "foreign" means a jurisdiction outside of the United States, not a different state within the United States.

4.    Section 412(a) through (c) authorizes the administrator to proceed against an entire firm, regardless of whether the administrator proceeds against any individual, when an individual partner, officer, or director or person occupying a similar status or performing similar functions, or a controlling person is disciplined under subsection (d), but only if proceeding against the entire firm is in the public interest. The discipline of such an individual may not automatically be used against a broker-dealer or investment adviser. When, however, there is a failure to reasonably supervise, see Section 412(d)(9) or control person liability, see Section 412(h), the administrator is empowered to proceed against a firm in an appropriate case. In Section 412, "any partner, officer, or director, any person occupying a similar status or performing similar function." can include a branch manager, assistant branch manager, or other supervisor.

5.    In Section 412(d)(1) the completeness and accuracy of an effective application for registration is tested as of the appropriate effective date. An application that becomes incomplete or inaccurate after its effective date is not a ground for discipline under paragraph (d)(1). In an appropriate case, an action might be available under paragraph (d)(2) and Section 406(b). On the other hand, in a proceeding to deny effectiveness to a pending application for registration, the completeness and accuracy of the application is not limited to the effective date and can be judged on any date after filing.

6.    The term "wilfully" in Section 412(d)(2) and (11)(A) is discussed in Comment 2 to Section 508.

7.    There is no time limit or statute of limitations on felony convictions in Section 412(d)(3) as a ground for disciplinary action.

8.    The present tense of the verb "is" in Sections 412(d)(4) through (6) and (12) means that an injunction, order, adjudication, or determination that has expired or been vacated is no longer a ground for discipline.

9.    In Sections 412(d)(5) and (6) the administrator is not required to prove the validity of the ground which led to the earlier disciplinary order.

10.    Under Section 412(d)(7) the administrator may not proceed against a broker-dealer or investment adviser firm on the basis of the insolvency of a partner, officer, director, controlling person or other person specified in subsection (b), unless it is a sole proprietorship.

11.    Section 412(d)(8) can be violated by a refusal to cooperate with an administrator's reasonable audit or inspection, including by withholding or concealing records, refusing to furnish required records, or refusing the administrator reasonable access to any office or location within an office to conduct an audit or inspection under this chapter. However, a request by a person subject to an audit or inspection for a reasonable delay to obtain assistance of counsel does not constitute a violation of Section 412(d)(8).

12.    The term "failed to supervise reasonably" in Section 412(d)(9) includes not having reasonable supervisory procedures in place as well as a proper system of supervision and internal control. Cf. Hollinger v. Titan Capital Corp., 914 F.2d 1564 (9th Cir. 1990), cert. denied, 499 U.S. 976 (1991). Section 15(b)(4)(E) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 similarly addresses "failure to supervise reasonably." See 6 Louis Loss & Joel Seligman, Securities Regulation 3097-3101 (3d ed. rev. 2002).

13.    The term "dishonest and unethical practices" in Section 412(d)(13) has been held not to be unconstitutionally vague. See, e.g., Brewster v. Maryland Sec. Comm'n, 548 A.2d 157, 160 (M.D. Ct. Spec. App. 1988) ("a broad statutory standard is not vague if it has a meaningful referent in business practice, custom or usage"); Johnson-Bowles Co. v. Division of Sec., 829 P.2d 101, 114 (Utah Ct. App. 1992) (such legislative language bespeaks a legislative intent to delegate the interpretation of what constitutes "dishonest and unethical practices" in the securities industry to the administrator). Ministerial or clerical violations of a statute or rule, if immaterial and occurring without intent or recklessness, typically would not constitute dishonest or unethical practices.

14.    Under the counterparts to Section 412(d)(14) and (e) [S.C. Code Sections 35-1-412(d)(14) and 35-1-410(d)] applicants to become agents of broker-dealers typically take standardized tests administered by the National Association of Securities Dealers, Inc.

15.    Sections 412(f) and (g) amplify the earlier procedures found in Section 204(f) of the 1956 Act and are intended to facilitate summary disciplinary proceedings, when these are appropriate.

16.    Section 412(i) parallels the language of Section 204 of the 1956 Act and Section 212(b) of RUSA with some significant changes. The time period in which the administrator can act has been extended to one year from 30 days in the 1956 Act and 90 days in RUSA. The limitation on instituting a proceeding can also be tolled by instituting a formal investigation. The addition of the word "solely" is intended to make it clear that an administrator may consider the prior history of an applicant or registrant even if that prior history had been known to the administrator for more than one year if there are additional material facts which are actually known to the administrator within the last year.

17.    "Actually known" in Section 412(i) is used to signify that the mere filing of material facts in the Central Registration Depository or Investment Advisory Registration Depository systems does not constitute actual knowledge, unless that information was received by the administrator, or, but for a decision by the administrator, would have been received by the administrator.

South Carolina Reporter's Comments

1.    Section 35-1-412: This section substantially follows prior law, but imposes some limitations on actions taken in response to proceedings in other states.

2.    Section 35-1-412(c) varies from the uniform text by use of the term "and/or" in the phrase "censure, impose a bar and/or" to clarify that the disciplinary actions may be cumulative in appropriate circumstances.

3.    Section 35-1-412(d)(8) specifically provides for disciplinary action if there is a refusal or impediment to an audit or inspection.

4.    Section 35-1-412(d)(13) contains the phrase "dishonest and unethical practices," which also appeared in prior law and was substantially fleshed out in S.C. Regs. 113-23 and 113-25.

5.    Model Act Section 412(e) [Examinations] was enacted as South Carolina Section 35-1-410(d) in the South Carolina Act. Therefore the reference in Official Comment 14 to "the counterparts to Section 412(d)(14) and (e)" of the Model Act refers to what is enacted in the South Carolina Act as Section 35-1-412(d)(14) and Section 35-1-410(d).

6.    Section 35-1-412(h) makes clear that a controlling person may be disciplined as well as the specific offender, unless such controlling person did not know and reasonably could not have known of the conduct involved.

Article 5

Fraud and Liabilities

Section 35-1-501.    It is unlawful for a person, in connection with the offer, sale, or purchase of a security, directly or indirectly:     (1)    to employ a device, scheme, or artifice to defraud;

(2)    to make an untrue statement of a material fact or to omit to state a material fact necessary in order to make the statements made, in light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading; or

(3)    to engage in an act, practice, or course of business that operates or would operate as a fraud or deceit upon another person.

Official Comments

Prior Provisions: 1956 Act Section 101; RUSA Section 501.

1.    Section 501, which was Section 101 in the 1956 Act, was modeled on Rule 10b-5 adopted under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 and on Section 17(a) of the Securities Act of 1933. There has been significant later case development interpreting Rule 10b-5, Section 17(a), and Section 101 of the 1956 Act. Section 501 is not identical to either Rule 10b-5 or Section 17(a).

2.    There are no exemptions from Section 501.

3.    Section 501 applies to any securities offer, sale or purchase, including offers, sales, or purchases involving registered, exempt, or federal covered securities. It would also apply to a rescission offer under Section 510.

4.    The possible consequences of violating Section 501 are many. These include denial, suspension, or revocation of securities registration under Section 306; denial, revocation, suspension, withdrawal, restriction, condition or limitation of a broker-dealer, agent, investment adviser, or investment adviser representative registration under Section 412; criminal prosecution under Section 508; civil enforcement proceedings under Sections 603; and administrative proceedings under 604.

5.    Because Section 501, like Rule 10b-5, reaches market manipulation, see 8 Louis Loss & Joel Seligman, Securities Regulation Ch.10.D (3d ed. 1991), this chapter does not include the RUSA market manipulation Section 502, which had no counterpart in the 1956 Act.

6.    The culpability required to be pled or proved under Section 501 is addressed in the relevant enforcement context. See, e.g., Section 508, criminal penalties, where "willfulness" must be proven; Section 509, civil liabilities, which includes a reasonable care defense; or civil and administrative enforcement actions under Sections 603 and 604, where no culpability is required to be pled or proven.

7.    There is no private cause of action, express or implied, under Section 501. Section 509(m) expressly provides that only Section 509 provides a private cause of action for conduct that could violate Section 501.

South Carolina Reporter's Comments

This section, with minor grammatical exceptions, is unchanged from prior law found at former Section 35-1-1210. In Atlanta Skin & Cancer Clinic, P. C. v. Hallmark General Partners, Inc., 320 S. C. 113, 463 S.E.2d 600 (1995), the Supreme Court held that former Section 35-1-1210 did not, by itself, create a private right of action.

Section 35-1-502.    (a)    It is unlawful for a person that advises others for compensation, either directly or indirectly or through publications or writings, as to the value of securities or the advisability of investing in, purchasing, or selling securities or that, for compensation and as part of a regular business, issues or promulgates analyses or reports relating to securities:

(1)    to employ a device, scheme, or artifice to defraud another person; or

(2)    to engage in an act, practice, or course of business that operates or would operate as a fraud or deceit upon another person.     (b)    A rule adopted under this chapter may define an act, practice, or course of business in connection with giving investment advice regarding securities as fraudulent, deceptive, or manipulative, and prescribe means reasonably designed to prevent a person from engaging in acts, practices, and courses of business defined as fraudulent, deceptive, or manipulative.

(c)    A rule adopted under this chapter may specify the contents of a contract entered into, extended, or renewed in connection with giving investment advice regarding securities.

Official Comments

Prior Provisions: 1956 Act Section 102(a); RUSA Section 503.

1.    Section 502(a) applies to any person that commits fraud in providing investment advice. Section 502(b) is not limited to persons registered as investment advisers or investment adviser representatives.

2.    A person can violate both Section 501 and Section 502 if the person violates Section 502 in connection with the offer, purchase, or sale of a security.

3.    The rulemaking authority under Sections 502(b) and (c) would provide the basis for existing NASAA rules concerning investment advisers, to the extent these rules are not preempted by the National Securities Markets Improvement Act of 1996.

4.    Under Section 203A(b)(2) of the Investment Advisers Act States retain their authority to investigate and bring enforcement actions with respect to fraud or deceit against a federal covered investment adviser or a person associated with a federal covered investment adviser. Under Section 502(a), which applies to any person, a State could bring an enforcement action against a federal covered investment adviser, including a federal covered investment adviser excluded from the definition of investment adviser in Section 102(15)(E).

5.    There is no private cause of action, express or implied, under Section 502. Section 509(m) expressly provides that only Section 509 provides for a private cause of action for prohibited conduct in providing investment advice that could violate Section 502.

South Carolina Reporter's Comments

1.    This section replaces prior law found at former Sections 35-1-120, 35-1-1230, and 35-1-1240.

2.    Subsection (a) is similar to prior law found at Section 35-1-1220(1) and (2).

3.    Subsections (b) and (c) provide rulemaking authority to succeed the statutory provisions in prior law found at former Sections 35-1-1220 through 1240 concerning unlawful activities of investment advisers, exemptions from such prohibitions, and taking or retaining possession of securities. The flexibility in the broad rulemaking authority signals a recognition that most state regulation of investment advisers recently has been adopted through rules.

4.    South Carolina deleted the references to "supervised person[s] of a federal covered investment adviser" in Section 35-1-502(b) to enable the Securities Commissioner, to the extent not preempted by federal law, to promulgate rules concerning fraudulent conduct by those "supervised persons." South Carolina also clarified that Section 35-1-501(b) and (c) is limited to investment advice "regarding securities."

Section 35-1-503.    (a)    In a civil action or administrative proceeding under this chapter, a person claiming an exemption, exception, preemption, or exclusion has the burden to prove the applicability of the claim.

(b)    In a criminal proceeding under this chapter, a person claiming an exemption, exception, preemption, or exclusion has the burden of going forward with evidence of the claim.

Official Comments

Prior Provisions: 1956 Act Section 402(d); RUSA Section 608.

1.    As specified in Section 503(a), in a civil or administrative action, the person claiming an exemption, exception, preemption, or exclusion has the burden of persuasion.

2.    In contrast, in a criminal action under Section 503(b), the prosecutor is required to prove each element of a crime "beyond a reasonable doubt." The defendant only has the burden of producing evidence of an exemption, exception, preemption, or exclusion. Some court decisions have characterized this burden as an affirmative defense. See, e.g., United States ex. rel. Schott v. Tehan, 365 F.2d 191, 195 (6th Cir. 1966) (Ohio blue sky law constitutionally shifts burden of production to defendant); Commonwealth v. David, 309 N.E.2d 484, 488 (Mass. 1974) (exemption is an affirmative defense); State v. Frost, 387 N.E.2d 235, 238-239 (Ohio 1979) (it is not unconstitutional to require the burden of proof as an affirmative defense to prove a securities law exemption); State v. Andersen, 773 A.2d 328 (Conn. 2001) (an exemption from registration is an affirmative defense to the charge of selling unregistered securities).

South Carolina Reporter's Comments

"Evidentiary burden". This provision is substantially similar to prior law found at former Section 35-1-340.

Section 35-1-504.    (a)    Except as otherwise provided in subsection (b), a rule adopted or order issued under this chapter may require the filing of a prospectus, pamphlet, circular, form letter, advertisement, sales literature, or other advertising record relating to a security or investment advice regarding securities, addressed or intended for distribution to prospective investors, including clients or prospective clients of a person registered or required to be registered as an investment adviser under this chapter.

(b)    This section does not apply to sales and advertising literature specified in subsection (a) which relates to a federal covered security, a federal covered investment adviser, or a security or transaction exempted by Section 35-1-201, 35-1-202, or 35-1-203 except as required pursuant to Section 35-1-201(7).

Official Comments

Prior Provisions: 1956 Act Section 403; RUSA Section 405.

1.    The prospectuses, pamphlets, circulars, form letters, advertisements, sales literature or advertising communications, include material disseminated electronically or available on a web site.

2.    The administrator may bring a civil enforcement action in a court under Section 603 or institute administrative enforcement under Section 604 to prevent publication, circulation or use of any materials required by the administrator to be filed under Section 504 that have not been filed.

3.    Section 504(b) is meant to refer to the communications described in Section 504(a).

South Carolina Reporter's Comments

This section is similar to prior law found at former Section 35-1-50.

Section 35-1-505.    It is unlawful for a person to make or cause to be made, in a record that is used in an action or proceeding or filed under this chapter, a statement that, at the time and in the light of the circumstances under which it is made, is false or misleading in a material respect, or, in connection with the statement, to omit to state a material fact necessary to make the statement made, in the light of the circumstances under which it was made, not false or misleading.

Official Comment

Prior Provisions: 1956 Act Section 404; RUSA Section 504.

The definition of "materiality" in TSC Indus., Inc. v. Northway, Inc., 426 U.S. 438, 449 (1976) ("an omitted fact is material if there is a substantial likelihood that a reasonable shareholder would consider it important in deciding how to vote") has generally been followed in both federal and state securities law.     See 4 Louis Loss & Joel Seligman, Securities Regulation 2071-2105 (3d ed. rev. 2000).

South Carolina Reporter's Comments

This section is similar to prior law found at former Section 35-1-160 except that it adds the definition of "materially".

Section 35-1-506.    The filing of an application for registration, a registration statement, a notice filing under this chapter, the registration of a person, the notice filing by a person, or the registration of a security under this chapter does not constitute a finding by the Securities Commissioner that a record filed under this chapter is true, complete, and not misleading. The filing or registration or the availability of an exemption, exception, preemption, or exclusion for a security or a transaction does not mean that the Securities Commissioner has passed upon the merits or qualifications of, or recommended or given approval to, a person, security, or transaction. It is unlawful to make, or cause to be made, to a purchaser, customer, client, or prospective customer or client a representation inconsistent with this section.

Official Comment

Prior Provisions: 1956 Act Section 405; RUSA Section 505.

This Section follows the 1956 Act and RUSA, as well as state securities statutes generally, in providing that a misrepresentation concerning registration or an exemption is unlawful.

South Carolina Reporter's Comments

This section is substantially similar to prior law found at former Section 35-1-170.

Section 35-1-507.    A broker-dealer, agent, investment adviser, federal covered investment adviser, or investment adviser representative is not liable to another broker-dealer, agent, investment adviser, federal covered investment adviser, or investment adviser representative for defamation relating to a statement that is contained in a record required by the Securities Commissioner, or designee of the Securities Commissioner, the Securities and Exchange Commission, or a self-regulatory organization, unless the person knew, or should have known at the time that the statement was made, that it was false in a material respect or the person acted in reckless disregard of the statement's truth or falsity.

Official Comments

Source of Law: National Association of Securities Dealers, Inc. Proposal Relating to Qualified Immunity in Arbitration Proceedings for Statements Made in Forms U-4 and U-5.

1.    In 1994 The Securities and Exchange Commission Division of Market Regulation published The Large Firm Project: A Review of Hiring, Retention, and Supervisory Practices (1994), which found that a small number of "rogue brokers" were responsible for a significant proportion of customer disciplinary complaints. These brokers in some instances moved from one broker-dealer firm to another, it was explained, without full and complete disclosure of disciplinary problems by the broker-dealer, because of broker-dealer firms' fear of state law defamation claims. See also GAO, Actions Needed to Better Protect Investors against Unscrupulous Brokers 3 (1994); Testimony of SEC Chairman Arthur Levitt Concerning the Large Firm Project, Subcomm. on Telecommunications & Fin., House Comm. on Energy & Commerce (Sept. 14, 1994), reprinted in 1994-1995 Fed. Sec. L. Rep. (CCH) 85,433 (1994).

2.    In 1998, the National Association of Securities Dealers proposed qualified immunity for statements made in Forms U-4 and U-5 to address this problem. This proposal was reprinted in Securities Exchange Act Release 39,892, 66 SEC Dock. 2473 (1998). This proposal was limited to arbitration proceedings. It was not acted on by the Securities and Exchange Commission.

3.    An alternative approach would be a standard providing for absolute immunity. See generally Anne Wright, Form U-5 Defamation, 52 Wash. & Lee L. Rev. 1299 (1995); Acciardo v. Millennium Sec. Corp., 83 F. Supp. 2d 413 (S.D.N.Y. 2000) (discussing both New York qualified and absolute immunity cases).

4.    Securities administrators or self-regulatory organizations generally are subject to absolute or qualified immunity for actions of their employees within the course of their official duties. See 10 Louis Loss & Joel Seligman, Securities Regulation 4818-4821 (3d ed. rev. 1996).

5.    As is generally the law "truth is a complete defense to a defamation action." Andrews v. Prudential Sec., Inc., 160 F.3d 304, 308 (6th Cir. 1998).

6.    An agent who has been the subject of a Form U-5, Uniform Termination Notice for Securities Industry Registration, may respond to specified adverse disclosures and have her or his responses reprinted on the published version of Form U-5.

7.    Through September 2002 no state had adopted an immunity provision in its securities statute. No state has rejected immunity in this context by judicial decision. A number of states have adopted qualified immunity by judicial decision. See, e.g., Eaton Vance Distrib., Inc. v. Ulrich, 692 So.2d 915 (Fla. Dist. Ct. App. 1997); Bavarati v. Josephal, Lyon & Ross, Inc., 28 F.3d 704 (7th Cir. 1994) (Illinois); Andrews v. Prudential Sec., Inc., 160 F.3d 304 (6th Cir. 1998) (Michigan); Prudential Sec., Inc. v. Dalton, 929 F. Supp. 1411 (N.D. Okla. 1996) (Oklahoma); Glennon v. Dean Witter Reynolds Inc., 83 F.3d 132 (6th Cir. 1996) (Tennessee).

South Carolina Reporter's Comments

This section is new. It reflects a balance between no immunity from defamation which might deter disclosure of problems with departing employees, as opposed to full immunity which might allow broker-dealers and investment advisers to unfairly characterize employees in order to protect their "book" of clients. Instead, this section establishes a qualified immunity.

Section 35-1-508.    (a)    A person that wilfully violates this chapter, or a rule adopted or order issued under this chapter, except Section 35-1-504 or the notice filing requirements of Section 35-1-302 or 35-1-405, or that wilfully violates Section 35-1-505 knowing that the statement made is false or misleading in a material respect, is guilty of a:

(1)    felony and, upon conviction, must be fined not more than fifty thousand dollars or imprisoned not more than ten years, or both, if the person's actions result in loss to an investor of twenty thousand dollars or more;

(2)    felony and, upon conviction, must be fined in the discretion of the court or imprisoned not more than five years, or both, if the person's actions result in loss to an investor of more than one thousand dollars but less than twenty thousand dollars;

(3)    misdemeanor and, upon conviction, must be fined not more than thirty thousand dollars or imprisoned not more than three years, or both, if the person's actions result in loss to an investor of one thousand dollars or less, or if no losses are proven.     An individual convicted of violating a rule or order under this chapter may be fined, but may not be imprisoned, if the individual did not have knowledge of the rule or order.

(b)    The Securities Commissioner may refer that evidence as is available concerning violations of this chapter or of any rule or order under this chapter to the appropriate Division of the Attorney General's Office or other appropriate prosecution, law enforcement, or licensing authorities who may institute the appropriate proceedings under this chapter.

(c)    This chapter does not limit the power of this State to punish a person for conduct that constitutes a crime under other laws of this State.

Official Comments

Prior Provisions: 1956 Act Section 409; RUSA Section 604; Securities Exchange Act of 1934 Section 32(a).

1.    This section follows the 1956 Act and the federal securities laws in imposing criminal penalties for any willful violation of the chapter. RUSA Section 604 distinguished between felonies and misdemeanors, limiting willful violations of cease and desist orders to a misdemeanor.

2.    The term "wilfully" has the same meaning in Section 508 as it did in the 1956 Act. All that is required is proof that a person acted intentionally in the sense that the person was aware of what he or she was doing. Proof of evil motive or intent to violate the law or knowledge that the law was being violated is not required.

3.    The final sentence of Section 508(a) is based on Section 32(a) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, which provides: "[N]o person shall be subject to imprisonment under this section in violation of any rule or regulation if he proves that he had no knowledge of such rule or regulation."     The "no knowledge" clause in Section 508(a) is relevant only to sentencing. The person convicted has the burden of persuasion to prove no knowledge at sentencing. Because this does not impose a burden on the defendant to disprove the elements of a crime, Section 32(a) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 has been held not to raise a constitutional problem. United States v. Mandel, 296 F. Supp. 1038, 1040 (S.D.N.Y. 1969).

4.    The appropriate state prosecutor under Section 508(b) may decide whether to bring a criminal action under this statute, another statute, or, when applicable, common law. In certain states the administrator has full or limited criminal enforcement powers.

5.    This section does not specify maximum dollar amounts for criminal fines, maximum terms for imprisonment, nor the years of limitation, but does provide for each state to specify appropriate magnitudes for criminal fines or maximum terms for imprisonment.

6.    The definition of willfulness in Comment 2 to Section 508 has been followed by most courts. See, e.g., State v. Hodge, 460 P.2d 596, 604 (Kan. 1969) ("No specific intent is necessary to constitute the offense where one violates the securities act except the intent to do the act denounced by the statute"); State v. Nagel, 279 N.W.2d 911, 915 (S.D. 1979) ("[I]t is widely understood that the legislature may forbid the doing of an act and make its commission a crime without regard to the intent or knowledge of the doer"); State v. Fries, 337 N.W.2d 398, 405 (Neb. 1983) (proof of a specific intent, evil motive, or knowledge that the law was being violated is not required to sustain a criminal conviction under a state's blue sky law); People v. Riley, 708 P.2d 1359, 1362 (Colo. 1985) ("A person acts 'knowingly' or 'wilfully' with respect to conduct . . . when he is aware that his conduct . . . exists"); State v. Larsen, 865 P.2d 1355, 1358 (Utah 1993) (willful implies a willingness to commit the act, not an intent to violate the law or to injure another or acquire any advantage); State v . Montgomery, 17 P.3d 292, 294 (Idaho 2001) (bad faith is not required for a violation of a state securities act; willful implies "simply a purpose or willingness to commit the act or make the omission referred to"); State v. Dumke, 901 S.W.2d 100, 102 (Mo. Ct. App. 1995) (mens rea not required); State v. Mueller, 549 N.W.2d 455, 460 (Wis. Ct. App. 1996) (willfulness does not require proof that the defendant acted with intent to defraud or knowledge that the law was violated); United States v. Lilley, 291 F. Supp. 989, 993 (S.D. Tex. 1968) ("no knowledge" clause in federal statute not available to defendant claiming lack of knowledge of particular SEC rule).

South Carolina Reporter's Comments

1.    Subsection (a) is substantially similar to prior law found at former Section 35-1-1590. The anti-fraud remedies apply to all entities and persons, whether or not they are exempt from state registration and reporting requirements.

2.    Subsection (b) continues and extends the Securities Commissioner's authority to refer evidence not only to appropriate law enforcement or licensing authorities within this State, including the proper division within the Attorney General's Office and the Statewide Grand Jury, but also to appropriate authorities in other states.

Section 35-1-509.    (a)    Enforcement of civil liability under this section is subject to the Securities Litigation Uniform Standards Act of 1998.

(b)    A person is liable to the purchaser if the person sells a security in violation of Sections 35-1-301 or 35-1-501 or, by means of an untrue statement of a material fact or an omission to state a material fact necessary in order to make the statement made, in light of the circumstances under which it is made, not misleading, the purchaser not knowing the untruth or omission and the seller not sustaining the burden of proof that the seller did not know and, in the exercise of reasonable care, could not have known of the untruth or omission. An action under this subsection is governed by the following:

(1)    The purchaser may maintain an action to recover the consideration paid for the security, less the amount of any income received on the security, and interest at the legal rate of interest from the date of the purchase, costs, and reasonable attorneys' fees determined by the court, upon the tender of the security, or for actual damages as provided in paragraph (3).

(2)    The tender referred to in paragraph (1) may be made any time before entry of judgment. Tender requires only notice in a record of ownership of the security and willingness to exchange the security for the amount specified. A purchaser that no longer owns the security may recover actual damages as provided in paragraph (3).

(3)    Actual damages in an action arising under this subsection are the amount that would be recoverable upon a tender less the value of the security when the purchaser disposed of it, and interest at the legal rate of interest from the date of the purchase, costs, and reasonable attorneys' fees determined by the court.

(c)    A person is liable to the seller if the person buys a security in violation of Section 35-1-501 or by means of an untrue statement of a material fact or omission to state a material fact necessary in order to make the statement made, in light of the circumstances under which it is made, not misleading, the seller not knowing of the untruth or omission, and the purchaser not sustaining the burden of proof that the purchaser did not know, and in the exercise of reasonable care, could not have known of the untruth or omission. An action under this subsection is governed by the following:

(1)    The seller may maintain an action to recover the security, and any income received on the security, costs, and reasonable attorneys' fees determined by the court, upon the tender of the purchase price, or for actual damages as provided in paragraph (3).

(2)    The tender referred to in paragraph (1) may be made any time before entry of judgment. Tender requires only notice in a record of the present ability to pay the amount tendered and willingness to take delivery of the security for the amount specified. If the purchaser no longer owns the security, the seller may recover actual damages as provided in paragraph (3).

(3)    Actual damages in an action arising under this subsection are the difference between the price at which the security was sold and the value the security would have had at the time of the sale in the absence of the purchaser's conduct causing liability, and interest at the legal rate of interest from the date of the sale of the security, costs, and reasonable attorneys' fees determined by the court.

(d)    A person acting as a broker-dealer or agent that sells or buys a security in violation of Section 35-1-401(a), 35-1-402(a), or 35-1-506 is liable to the customer. The customer, if a purchaser, may maintain an action for recovery of actual damages as specified in subsections (b)(1) through (3), or, if a seller, for a remedy as specified in subsections (c)(1) through (3).

(e)    A person acting as an investment adviser or investment adviser representative that provides investment advice regarding securities for compensation in violation of Section 35-1-403(a), 35-1-404(a), or 35-1-506 is liable to the client. The client may maintain an action to recover the consideration paid for the advice, interest at the legal rate of interest from the date of payment, costs, and reasonable attorneys' fees determined by the court.

(f)    A person that receives directly or indirectly any consideration for providing investment advice regarding securities to another person and that employs a device, scheme, or artifice to defraud the other person or engages in an act, practice, or course of business that operates or would operate as a fraud or deceit on the other person, is liable to the other person. An action under this subsection is governed by the following:

(1)    The person defrauded may maintain an action to recover the consideration paid for the advice and the amount of any actual damages caused by the fraudulent conduct, interest at the legal rate of interest from the date of the fraudulent conduct, costs, and reasonable attorneys' fees determined by the court, less the amount of any income received as a result of the fraudulent conduct.

(2)    This subsection does not apply to a broker-dealer or its agents if the investment advice regarding securities that is provided is solely incidental to transacting business as a broker-dealer and no special compensation is received for the investment advice regarding securities.

(g)    The following persons are liable jointly and severally with and to the same extent as persons liable under subsections (b) through (f):

(1)    a person that directly or indirectly controls a person liable under subsections (b) through (f), unless the controlling person sustains the burden of proof that the person did not know, and in the exercise of reasonable care could not have known, of the existence of conduct by reason of which the liability is alleged to exist;

(2)    an individual who is a managing partner, executive officer, or director of a person liable under subsections (b) through (f), including an individual having a similar status or performing similar functions, unless the individual sustains the burden of proof that the individual did not know and, in the exercise of reasonable care could not have known, of the existence of conduct by reason of which the liability is alleged to exist;

(3)    an individual who is an employee, or a person occupying a similar status or performing a similar function, of a person liable under subsections (b) through (f) and who materially aids the conduct giving rise to the liability, unless the individual sustains the burden of proof that the individual did not know and, in the exercise of reasonable care could not have known, of the existence of conduct by reason of which the liability is alleged to exist; and

(4)    a person that is a broker-dealer, agent, investment adviser, or investment adviser representative that materially aids the conduct giving rise to the liability under subsections (b) through (f), unless the person sustains the burden of proof that the person did not know and, in the exercise of reasonable care could not have known, of the existence of conduct by reason of which liability is alleged to exist.

(5)    a person who, with actual knowledge that a person is committing acts sufficient to violate Sections 35-1-501 and 35-1-502, nonetheless intentionally furthers the violation with actual awareness that the person is rendering substantial assistance to the person committing the violation of Sections 35-1-501 and 35-1-502, thereby becomes an aider and abettor of the violation, and is therefore jointly and severally liable with and to the same extent as the assisted person who engaged in the fraudulent activity, provided, however, this subsection (5) does not require any due diligence investigation nor impose liability for failure to perform any due diligence investigation otherwise required.

(h)    A person liable under this section has a right of contribution as in cases of contract against any other person liable under this section for the same conduct.

(i)        A cause of action under this section survives the death of an individual who might have been a plaintiff or defendant.

(j)        A person may not obtain relief:

(1)    under subsection (b) for violation of Section 35-1-301, or under subsection (d) or (e), unless the action is instituted within three years after the violation occurred; or

(2)    under subsection (b), other than for violation of Section 35-1-301, or under subsection (c) or (f), unless the action is instituted within the earlier of three years after discovery of the facts constituting the violation or five years after the violation.

(k)    A person that has made, or has engaged in the performance of, a contract in violation of this chapter or a rule adopted or order issued under this chapter, or that has acquired a purported right under the contract with knowledge of conduct by reason of which its making or performance was in violation of this chapter, may not base an action on the contract.

(l)        A condition, stipulation, or provision including, but not limited to, any choice of law provision directly or indirectly binding a person purchasing or selling a security or receiving investment advice regarding securities to waive compliance with this chapter or a rule adopted or order issued under this chapter is void.

(m)    The rights and remedies provided by this chapter are in addition to any other rights or remedies that may exist, but this chapter does not create a cause of action not specified in this section or Section 35-1-411(e).

Official Comments

Prior Provisions: 1956 Act Section 410; RUSA Sections 605-607, 609, 802.

1.    Under Section 509 violations of two or more sections can be proven, but the remedy is limited either to rescission or actual damages. Actual damages means compensatory damages. Punitive or "double" damages are not provided by this section which also is the standard under Section 28(a) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934. See 9 Louis Loss & Joel Seligman, Securities Regulation 4408-4427 (3d ed. rev. 1992).

2.    The Securities Litigation Uniform Standards Act of 1998 cited in Section 509(a) modifies the entire Section 509.

3.    As with Section 12(a)(2) of the Securities Act of 1933, Section 509(b) contains a type of privity requirement in that the purchaser is required to bring an action against the seller. Section 509(b) is broader than Section 12(a)(2) in that it will reach all sales in violation of Section 301, not just sales "by means of a prospectus" as is the law under Section 12(a)(2). See Gustafson v. Alloyd Co., Inc., 513 U.S. 561 (1995).

4.    Unlike the current standards on implied rights of action under Rule 10b-5, neither causation nor reliance has been held to be an element of a private cause of action under the precursor to Section 509(b). See Gerhard W. Gohler, IRA v. Wood, 919 P.2d 561 (Utah 1996); Ritch v. Robinson-Humprhey Co., 748 So. 2d 861 (Ala. 1999); Kaufman v. I-Stat Corp., 754 A.2d 1188 (N.J. 2000).

5.    The measure of damages in Section 509(b)(3) is that contemplated by Section 12 of the Securities of 1933. See 9 Louis Loss and Joel Seligman, Securities Regulations 4242-4246 (3d ed. 1992).     The measure of damages in Section 509(c)(3), however, is that contemplated by Rule 10b-5. Sec. 9 id. 4408-4427. In providing for damages as an alternative to rescission, Section 509(b)(3) follows the 1956 Act and is an improvement upon many earlier state provisions, which conditioned the plaintiff's right of recovery on his or her being in a position to make a good tender. A plaintiff is not given the right under this type of statutory formula to retain stock and also seek damages.

6.    Sections 509(e) and (f) are based on a proposed NASAA amendment to the Uniform Securities Act adopted in order "to establish civil liability for individuals who wilfully violate Section 102 dealing with fraudulent practices pertaining to advisory activities." Neither provision is intended to limit other state law claims for providing investment advice.

7.    Broker-dealer employees, including research analysts, who receive no special compensation from third parties for investment advice would not be liable under Section 509(f).

8.    The control liability provision in Section 509(g)(1) is modeled on that in the 1956 Act. On the meaning of "control," see 4 Louis Loss & Joel Seligman, Securities Regulations 1703-1727 (3d ed. rev. 2000).

9.    The defense of lack of knowledge in Sections 509(g) is also modeled on the 1956 Act.

10.    Under Section 509(g)(2) partners, officers, and directors are liable, subject to the defense afforded by that subsection, without proof that they aided in the sale. In Section 509(g)(2), the term "partner" is intended to be limited to partners with management responsibilities, rather than a partner with a passive investment.

11.    Under 509(g)(4), the performance by a clearing broker of the clearing broker's contractual functions - even though necessary to the processing of a transaction - without more would not constitute material aid or result in liability under this subsection. See, e.g., Ross v. Bolton, 904 F.2d 819 (2d Cir. 1990).

12.    The "reasonable attorneys' fees" specified in Section 509 are permissive, not mandatory. See, e.g., Andrews v. Blue, 489 F.2d 367, 377 (10th Cir. 1973), (Colorado statute).

13.    The contribution provision in Section 509(h) is a safeguard to avoid the common law principle that prohibited contribution among joint tortfeasors.

14.    The statute of limitations in Section 509(j) is a hybrid of the 1956 Act and federal securities law approaches. The 1956 Act Section 410(p) provided that: "No person may sue under this section more than two years after the contract of sale." Under this provision, the state courts generally decline to extend a statute of limitations period on grounds of fraudulent concealment or equitable tolling.

Before the July 2002 enactment of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, Rule 10b-5 of the Securities Exchange Act as construed by the United States Supreme Court in Lampf, Pleva, Lipkind, Prepis & Petigrew v. Gilbertson, 501 U.S. 350 (1991), prohibited equitable tolling under the federal securities law one year after discovery and three years after the act formula. See generally 10 Louis Loss & Joel Seligman, Securities Regulation 4505-4525 (3d. ed. rev. 1996). The Sarbanes-Oxley Act added 28 U.S.C. Section 1658(b) which provides

. . . a private right of action that involves a claim of fraud, deceit, manipulation, or contrivance in contravention of a regulatory requirement concerning the securities laws, as defined in section 3(a)(47) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (15 U.S.C. 78c(a)(47)), may be brought not later than the earlier of ---

(1)    2 years after the discovery of the facts constituting the violation; or

(2)    5 years after such violation.

Section 509(j)(1), as with the 1956 Act, is a unitary statute of repose, requiring an action to be commenced within one year after a violation occurred. It is not intended that equitable tolling be permitted.

Section 509(j)(2), in contrast, generally follows the federal securities law model. An action must be brought within the earlier of two years after discovery or five years after the violation. As with federal courts construing the statute of limitations under Rule 10b-5, it is intended that the plaintiff's right to proceed is limited to two years after actual discovery "or after such discovery should have been made by the exercise of reasonable diligence" (inquiry notice), see, e.g., Law v. Medco Research, Inc., 113 F.3d 781 (7th Cir. 1997), or five years after the violation.

The rationale for replicating the basic federal statute of limitations in this chapter is to discourage forum shopping. If the statute of limitations applicable to Rule 10b-5 were to be changed in the future, identical changes should be made in Section 509(j)(2).

15.    Section 509(k) is similar to Section 29(b) of the Securities Exchange Act and is intended to apply only to actions to enforce illegal contracts. See Louis Loss, Commentary on the Uniform Securities Act 150 (1976).

16.    Section 509(m) follows the 1956 Act.

17.    Section 509 and Section 411(e) provide the exclusive private causes of action under this chapter.

South Carolina Reporter's Comments

1.    This section rewrites prior law found at former Section 35-1-1490 through Section 35-1-1560. The anti-fraud remedies apply to all entities and persons, whether or not they are exempt from state registration and reporting requirements.

2.    Subsections (a), (e) and (f) reflect preemptive changes added as a result of the Securities Litigation Uniform Standards Act of 1998 (SLUSA).

3.    Subsection (b) is substantially similar to prior law found at former Section 35-1-1490 and 35-1-1510; however, South Carolina added a reference to Section 501 in subsections 509(b) and (c) in order to ensure there is no gap in fraud liability. In Gordon v. Drews, 358 S. C. 598, 595 S.E.2d 864 (Ct. App. 2004), the Court of Appeals refused to apply the doctrine of laches where the tender offer was made four years after the defendant ceased operations. Since the tender was made during trial, it fell within the provisions of former Section 35-1-1510, and therefore laches would not bar the relief.

4.    South Carolina also adopted the proposed alternative concerning "legal rate of interest" throughout Section 35-1-509.

5.    Subsection (c) is new in that the chapter is expanded to cover those who sell to a buyer who violates the chapter. The remedy is either rescission or damages.

6.    Subsections (d), (e), and (f) are new.

7.    South Carolina clarified Section 35-1-509(g)(3) by removing the phrase "associated with" and replacing it with an individual who is an employee, or occupying a similar status or performing a similar purpose. The change was made to eliminate an interpretation of the "associated with" language as creating an unintended "aider and abettor" liability.

8.    South Carolina, by a close vote within the task force that studied the Uniform Securities Act, added a new item (g)(5) which adopts aider and abettor liability for violations of Sections 35-1-501 and 35-1-502. This subsection is a departure from prior law, found at former Section 35-1-1500, and from the draft of the Uniform Securities Act propounded by the National Conference of Commissioners on Uniform State Laws. Item (g)(5) adopts the "actual knowledge" and "actual awareness" standards in lieu of "reckless disregard," "constructive knowledge," or mere "knowledge." This subsection also states that it cannot be read to create a duty of due diligence where one does not already exist nor can it be read to create liability for mere failure to exercise due diligence where a requirement exists.

In adopting the aider and abettor liability, South Carolina was concerned that innocent parties might be named as defendants without a factual basis for believing those parties had "actual knowledge" or "actual awareness" of the fraudulent conduct. South Carolina adopted this provision based upon the expectation that the Rule 9(b), S.C.R.Civ.P. pleading particularity requirements would be applicable. While the last sentence of Rule 9(b) states "knowledge, and other conditions of mind may be averred generally," South Carolina notes that Rule 11 states that the signature on a pleading certifies that "to the best of his knowledge, information and belief that there is good ground to support it." South Carolina adopted this new subsection because it understood a complaining party would have to demonstrate a factual basis for those assertions.

The balance of subsection (g) is similar to prior law found at former Section 35-1-1500. With respect to "control person" liability, the Supreme Court has not determined what test to use in determining "control person" liability. In Atlanta Skin & Cancer Clinic, P. C. v. Hallmark General Partners, Inc., 320 S. C. 113, 463 S.E.2d 600 (1995), the Court held that a lender was not a "control person" under either the Metze v. Baehler, 762 F.2d 621 (8th Cir. 1985), cert. denied, 474 U. S. 1057 and cert. denied 474 &. S. 1072, or the Orloff v. Allman, 819 F.2d 904 (9th Cir. 1987) tests used by the federal courts.

9.    Subsection (h), providing for the right of contribution, is substantially similar to prior law found at former Section 35-1-1500.

10.    Subsection (i) represents a continuation of prior law found at former Section 35-1-1520.

11.    Proposed subsection (j) provided a statute of limitations representing a substantial departure from prior law found at former Section 35-1-1530. Claims for violations of registration requirements for securities (Section 301); broker-dealers and agents [subsection (d)]; and investment advisers/investment adviser representatives [subsection (e)], would have had to be brought within one year after the violation occurred. Claims for securities fraud [subsections (b) and (c)] and investment adviser fraud [subsection (f)], would have had to be brought within two years after discovery or five years after the violation. South Carolina therefore modified the proposed statute of limitations in Section 509(j) to conform to the current statute of limitations in order not to weaken protections for defrauded investors.

12.    Subsection (k) is substantially similar to prior law found at former Section 35-1-1540.

13.    Subsection (l) is substantially similar to prior law found at former Section 35-1-1550. In Section 509(l), South Carolina added choice of law provisions to specifically address the holding in Lybrand v. Merrill, Lynch, Pierce, Fenner & Smith, Inc., 321 S.C. 70, 467 S.E.2d 745 (Ct. App. 1996), which could be interpreted to allow a waiver of the prior act's protections pursuant to a choice of law provision.

14.    Subsection (m) is substantially similar to prior law found at former Section 35-1-1560. In Atlanta Skin & Cancer Clinic, P. C. v. Hallmark General Partners, Inc., 320 S. C. 113, 463 S.E.2d 600 (1995), the Supreme Court, based upon former Section 35-1-1560, held that there was no implied cause of action for aiding and abetting violations of the former act, beyond the express remedy in the former Section 35-1-1500 for statutory aiders and abetters.

Section 35-1-510.    A purchaser, seller, or recipient of investment advice regarding securities may not maintain an action under Section 35-1-509 if:

(1)    The purchaser, seller, or recipient of investment advice regarding securities receives in a record, before the action is instituted:

(A)    an offer stating the respect in which liability under Section 35-1-509 may have arisen and fairly advising the purchaser, seller, or recipient of investment advice regarding securities of that person's rights in connection with the offer, and any financial or other information necessary to correct all material misrepresentations or omissions in the information that was required by this chapter to be furnished to that person at the time of the purchase, sale, or investment advice regarding securities;

(B)    if the basis for relief under this section may have been a violation of Section 35-1-509(b), an offer to repurchase the security for cash, payable on delivery of the security, equal to the consideration paid, including without limitation all commissions and fees, and interest at the legal rate of interest from the date of the purchase, less the amount of any income received on the security, or, if the purchaser no longer owns the security, an offer to pay the purchaser upon acceptance of the offer damages in an amount that would be recoverable upon a tender, less the value of the security when the purchaser disposed of it, and interest at the legal rate of interest from the date of the purchase in cash equal to the damages computed in the manner provided in this subsection;

(C)    if the basis for relief under this section may have been a violation of Section 35-1-509(c), an offer to tender the security, on payment by the seller of an amount equal to the purchase price paid, less income received on the security by the purchaser and interest at the legal rate of interest from the date of the sale; or if the purchaser no longer owns the security, an offer to pay the seller upon acceptance of the offer, in cash, damages in the amount of the difference between the price at which the security was purchased and the value the security would have had at the time of the purchase in the absence of the purchaser's conduct that may have caused liability and interest at the legal rate of interest from the date of the sale;

(D)    if the basis for relief under this section may have been a violation of Section 35-1-509(d); and if the customer is a purchaser, an offer to pay as specified in subparagraph (B); or, if the customer is a seller, an offer to tender or to pay as specified in subparagraph (C);

(E)    if the basis for relief under this section may have been a violation of Section 35-1-509(e), an offer to reimburse in cash the consideration paid for the advice and interest at the legal rate of interest from the date of payment; or

(F)    if the basis for relief under this section may have been a violation of Section 35-1-509(f), an offer to reimburse in cash the consideration paid for the advice, the amount of any actual damages that may have been caused by the conduct, and interest at the legal rate of interest from the date of the violation causing the loss;

(2)    the offer under paragraph (1) states that it must be accepted by the purchaser, seller, or recipient of investment advice regarding securities within 30 days after the date of its receipt by the purchaser, seller, or recipient of investment advice or any shorter period, of not less than three days, that the Securities Commissioner, by order, specifies;

(3)    the offeror has the present ability to pay the amount offered or to tender the security under paragraph (1);

(4)    the offer under paragraph (1) is delivered to the purchaser, seller, or recipient of investment advice, or sent in a manner that ensures receipt by the purchaser, seller, or recipient of investment advice; and

(5)    the purchaser, seller, or recipient of investment advice that accepts the offer under paragraph (1) in a record within the period specified under paragraph (2) is paid in accordance with the terms of the offer.

Official Comments

Prior Provisions: 1956 Act Section 410(e); RUSA Section 607.

1.    A rescission offer must meet the specific requirements of Section 510 for civil liability under Section 509 to be extinguished.

Cf. Binder v. Gordian Sec., Inc., 742 F. Supp. 663, 666 (N.D. Ga. 1990). See generally Rowe, Rescission Offers under Federal and State Securities Law, 12 J. Corp. L. 383 (1987).

2.    A rescission offer that does not comply with Section 510 is subject to civil liability, administrative enforcement, or criminal penalties under this chapter. A rescission offer, for example, could violate Section 501, the general fraud provision.

3.    The administrator may publish a form that would comply with Section 510, but the form would not be the only one that could be used by the parties.

4.    A valid rescission offer will be exempt from securities registration. See Section 202(19).

5.    If a state chooses to add a notice or filing provision, it could provide this provision in Section 510(6), which would state:

(6)    The offer [or a notice] is required to be filed with the administrator 10 business days before the offering and conform in form and content with a rule prescribed by the administrator.

South Carolina Reporter's Comments

1.    This section revises prior law found at Section 35-1-1530. The new provision offers more detail on the procedures to be used in different situations.

2.    South Carolina added language to the proposed chapter clarifying in Section 35-1-510(10)(B), that the "consideration paid" includes all commissions and fees.

3.    South Carolina also adopted the "legal rate of interest" measure for Section 35-1-510.

Article 6 Administration and Judicial Review

Section 35-1-601.    (a)    This chapter shall be administered by the Attorney General who shall be ex officio the Securities Commissioner and who may employ such additional assistants as he deems necessary. The Securities Commissioner may delegate any or all of his duties pursuant to this chapter to members of his staff, as he deems necessary or appropriate.

(b)    It is unlawful for the Securities Commissioner or an officer, employee, or designee of the Securities Commissioner to use for personal benefit or the benefit of others records or other information obtained by or filed with the Securities Commissioner that are not public under Section 35-1-607(b). This chapter does not authorize the Securities Commissioner or an officer, employee, or designee of the Securities Commissioner to disclose the record or information, except in accordance with Section 35-1-602, 35-1-607(c), or 35-1-608.

(c)    This chapter does not create or diminish a privilege or exemption that exists at common law, by statute or rule, or otherwise.

(d)    The Securities Commissioner may develop and implement investor education initiatives to inform the public about investing in securities, with particular emphasis on responsible investing and on the prevention and detection of securities fraud. In developing and implementing these initiatives, the Securities Commissioner may collaborate with public and nonprofit organizations with an interest in investor education. The Securities Commissioner may accept grants or donations to develop and implement investor education initiatives. This subsection does not authorize the Securities Commissioner to require participation or monetary contributions of a registrant in an investor education program.

Official Comments

Prior Provisions: 1956 Act Section 406; RUSA Sections 701-702.

1.    Section 601(b) should be read with Section 607. Section 601(b) prohibits the administrator or the administrator's officers and employees from using for personal benefit records or information that Section 607(b) specifies do not constitute public records. Section 601(b) is not intended to limit the operation of Section 607(a). Neither Section 601(b) nor 607(b) is intended to impede the ability of the agencies specified in Section 608(a) from sharing records or other information in connection with an examination or an investigation.

2.    Section 601(c) makes clear that nothing in this chapter alters the availability of evidentiary privileges. That question is left to the general law of the particular state.

3.    Sections 601(d) and (e) were adopted in recognition of the importance of investor education. An increasing number of jurisdictions are earmarking specific funds for this purpose. The lack of financial acumen among public investors, seniors, and students continues to be demonstrated in recent industry and regulatory studies. The importance of investor financial literacy is increasingly crucial given the decades long shift from defined benefit retirement plans toward defined contribution plans where employees are left to direct their own retirement accounts.

South Carolina Reporter's Comments

1.    Section 35-1-601(a): This section varies from the uniform text. It continues current law which provides that the Attorney General acts as the ex officio Securities Commissioner and specifically allows the delegation of those duties to staff.

2.    Section 35-1-601(b): This section continues prior law.

3.    Section 35-1-601(c): This section is substantially similar to prior law found at former Section 35-1-1560.

4.    Section 35-1-601(d): This is a change in existing law to allow the Securities Commissioner to develop investor education programs through grants or donations. The uniform text includes an optional provision, Section 601(e), which is not adopted, which would have provided funding for such programs through the application of civil penalties paid to the Securities Commissioner.

Section 35-1-602.    (a)    The Securities Commissioner may:

(1)    conduct public or private investigations within or outside of this State which the Securities Commissioner considers necessary or appropriate to determine whether a person has violated, is violating, or is about to violate this chapter or a rule adopted or order issued under this chapter, or to aid in the enforcement of this chapter or in the adoption of rules and forms under this chapter;

(2)    require or permit a person to testify, file a statement, or produce a record, under oath or otherwise as the Securities Commissioner determines, as to all the facts and circumstances concerning a matter to be investigated or about which an action or proceeding is to be instituted; and

(3)    publish a record concerning an action, proceeding, or an investigation under, or a violation of, this chapter or a rule adopted or order issued under this chapter if the Securities Commissioner determines it is necessary or appropriate in the public interest and for the protection of investors.

(b)    For the purpose of an investigation under this chapter, the Securities Commissioner or its designated officer may administer oaths and affirmations, subpoena witnesses, seek compulsion of attendance, take evidence, require the filing of statements, and require the production of any records that the Securities Commissioner considers relevant or material to the investigation.

(c)    If a person does not appear or refuses to testify, file a statement, produce records, or otherwise does not obey a subpoena as required by the Securities Commissioner under this chapter, the Securities Commissioner may apply to the Richland County Court of Common Pleas or a court of another State to enforce compliance. The court may:

(1)    hold the person in contempt;

(2)    order the person to appear before the Securities Commissioner;

(3)    order the person to testify about the matter under investigation or in question;

(4)    order the production of records;

(5)    grant injunctive relief, including restricting or prohibiting the offer or sale of securities or the providing of investment advice regarding securities;

(6)    impose a civil penalty of not less than $500 and not greater than $5,000 for each violation; and

(7)    grant any other necessary or appropriate relief.

(d)    This section does not preclude a person from applying to the Richland County Court of Common Pleas or a court of another State for relief from a request to appear, testify, file a statement, produce records, or obey a subpoena.

(e)    An individual is not excused from attending, testifying, filing a statement, producing a record or other evidence, or obeying a subpoena of the Securities Commissioner under this chapter or in an action or proceeding instituted by the Securities Commissioner under this chapter on the ground that the required testimony, statement, record, or other evidence, directly or indirectly, may tend to incriminate the individual or subject the individual to a criminal fine, penalty, or forfeiture. If the individual refuses to testify, file a statement, or produce a record or other evidence on the basis of the individual's privilege against self-incrimination, the Securities Commissioner may apply to the Richland County Court of Common Pleas to compel the testimony, the filing of the statement, the production of the record, or the giving of other evidence. The testimony, record, or other evidence compelled under such an order may not be used, directly or indirectly, against the individual in a criminal case, except in a prosecution for perjury or contempt or otherwise failing to comply with the order.

(f)    At the request of the securities regulator of another State or a foreign jurisdiction, the Securities Commissioner may provide assistance if the requesting regulator states that it is conducting an investigation to determine whether a person has violated, is violating, or is about to violate a law or rule of the other State or foreign jurisdiction relating to securities matters that the requesting regulator administers or enforces. The Securities Commissioner may provide the assistance by using the authority to investigate and the powers conferred by this section as the Securities Commissioner determines is necessary or appropriate. The assistance may be provided without regard to whether the conduct described in the request would also constitute a violation of this chapter or other law of this State if occurring in this State. In deciding whether to provide the assistance, the Securities Commissioner may consider whether the requesting regulator is permitted and has agreed to provide assistance reciprocally within its State or foreign jurisdiction to the Securities Commissioner on securities matters when requested; whether compliance with the request would violate or prejudice the public policy of this State; and the availability of resources and employees of the Securities Commissioner to carry out the request for assistance.

Official Comments

Prior Provisions: 1956 Act Section 407; RUSA Section 601.

1.    Sections 602 (a) and (b) follow the 1956 Act, which was modeled generally on Sections 21(a) through (d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 as it then read.

2.    Standards for issuance of subpoenas have been generally established in federal and state securities law. See, e.g., 10 Louis Loss & Joel Seligman, Securities Regulation 4917-4937 (3d ed. rev. 1996) (discussing Oklahoma Press Pub. Co. v. Walling, 327 U.S. 186 (1946) and other cases). The scope of subpoena enforcement in each state is a general matter for judicial determination. Under Section 602, an individual subpoenaed to testify by the administrator is not compelled to testify within the meaning of these sections simply by service of a subpoena. Under Section 602(b) the individual can be subpoenaed and compelled to attend. Once in attendance an individual can assert an evidentiary privilege or exemption, see Section 601(c), including the Fifth Amendment privilege against self-incrimination. If an individual refuses to testify or give evidence, the administrator may apply (or have the appropriate State attorney apply) to the appropriate court for the relief specified in Section 602(c). If the individual invokes the privilege against self-incrimination, Section 602(d) allows the administrator to apply to the appropriate court to compel testimony under the "use immunity" provision barring the record compelled or other evidence obtained from being used in a criminal case. See People v. District Co. of Arapahoe County, 894 P.2d 739 (Colo. 1995). The phrase "directly or indirectly" in Section 602(e) is intended to include testimony, other evidence, or other information derived from immunized testimony, statements, records, or evidence.

3.    Section 602 is intended to apply generally to securities offers and sales under Article 3 and broker-dealer and investment adviser activity under Article 4, when there is noncompliance with the first sentence of Section 602(c). This subsection does not limit the powers of an administrator under other provisions of this chapter.

4.    A court may quash a subpoena for good cause under Section 602(d). The court may decline to enforce a subpoena that is arbitrary, capricious, or oppressive.

5.    Where appropriate under Section 602(f), an administrator could move to authorize admission of a requesting state's attorney under existing pro hac vice rules.

6.    Section 602(f) is consistent with the Securities Litigation Uniform Standard Act of 1998 which provides in Section 102(e):

The Securities and Exchange Commission, in consultation with State securities commissions (or any agencies or offices performing like functions), shall seek to encourage the adoption of State laws providing for reciprocal enforcement by State securities commissions of subpoenas issued by another State securities commission seeking to compel persons to attend, testify in, or produce documents or records in connection with an action or investigation by a State securities commission of an alleged violation of State securities laws.

7.    There are limitations on financial institutions being subject to visitorial powers by State officials, such as those affecting national banks contained in 12 U.S.C. 484 and 12 C.F.R. Sec. 7.4000. Law outside this chapter may place similar limits on state chartered financial institutions being subjected to visitorial powers. This chapter does not negate these limitations.

South Carolina Reporter's Comments

1.    Section 35-1-602(a): This provision continues existing law.

2.    Section 35-1-602(b): This provision continues existing law.

3.    Section 35-1-602(c): This provision for the enforcement of subpoenas generally follows existing law. Application for enforcement or contempt should be made to the Richland County Court of Common Pleas or the court of another State where appropriate. This section modifies monetary penalties. Current law provides for a court imposed sanction of up to Three Thousand Dollars for a bad faith failure to comply with a subpoena.

4.    Section 35-1-602(d): This provision clarifies the right of a subpoenaed party to seek relief from an appropriate court.

5.    Section 35-1-602(e): This provision provides a clarification of the procedure for obtaining use immunity, but it does not change current law which provides for it.

6.    Section 35-1-602(f): This provision makes explicit the inherent powers of the Attorney General to cooperate with securities regulators from other jurisdictions in their investigations.

Section 35-1-603.    (a)    If the Securities Commissioner believes that a person has engaged, is engaging, or is about to engage in an act, practice, or course of business constituting a violation of this chapter or a rule adopted or order issued under this chapter or that a person has, is, or is about to engage in an act, practice, or course of business that materially aids a violation of this chapter or a rule adopted or order issued under this chapter, the Securities Commissioner may maintain an action in the Richland County Court of Common Pleas to enjoin the act, practice, or course of business and to enforce compliance with this chapter or a rule adopted or order issued under this chapter.

(b)    In an action under this section and on a proper showing, the court may:

(1)    issue a permanent or temporary injunction, restraining order, or declaratory judgment;

(2)    order other appropriate or ancillary relief, which may include:

(A)    an asset freeze, accounting, writ of attachment, writ of general or specific execution, and appointment of a receiver or conservator, that may be the Securities Commissioner, for the defendant or the defendant's assets;

(B)    ordering the Securities Commissioner to take charge and control of a defendant's property, including investment accounts and accounts in a depository institution, rents, and profits; to collect debts; and to acquire and dispose of property;

(C)    imposing a civil penalty in an amount not to exceed ten thousand dollars for each violation; an order of rescission, restitution, or disgorgement directed to a person that has engaged in an act, practice, or course of business constituting a violation of this chapter or the predecessor chapter or a rule adopted or order issued under this chapter or the predecessor chapter; and

(D)    ordering the payment of prejudgment and postjudgment interest; or

(3)    order such other relief as the court considers appropriate.

(c)    The Securities Commissioner may not be required to post a bond in an action or proceeding under this chapter.

Official Comments

Prior Provisions: 1956 Act Section 408; RUSA Section 603.

1.    Section 408 of the 1956 Act was limited to injunctions. This Section follows RUSA in broadening the civil remedies available when the administrator believes that a violation has occurred. A primary purpose of a broad range of potential sanctions is to enable administrators to better tailor appropriate sanctions to particular misconduct.

2.    The administrator alternatively may proceed to seek administrative enforcement under Section 604; to deny, suspend, or revoke a securities registration under Section 306; or to deny, suspend, revoke, or take other action against a broker-dealer, agent, investment adviser, or investment adviser representative registration under Section 412.

3.    Constitutional due process considerations can also be addressed by rulemaking or incorporation of the applicable administrative procedure act provisions of each jurisdiction. The term "upon a proper showing" has a settled meaning in the federal securities laws. See, e.g., Securities Act of 1933 Section 20(b).

4.    As with Sections 509(g)(3) and (4), materially aid in Section 603(a) does not include ministerial or clerical acts.

South Carolina Reporter's Comments

1.    Section 35-1-603(a): This provision continues prior law. Along with Section 35-1-604, Section 35-1-603 allows the Attorney General to act in the event of violations not subject to Sections 35-1-306 or 35-1-412, but also offers an alternative where those sections are applicable. The venue provision in this section continues current law which provides that civil actions are to be brought in the Richland County Court of Common Pleas.

2.    Section 35-1-603(b): This section expands the relief available to the Attorney General in a civil action, but is only one of several options available when there have been violations of the chapter. The range of civil penalty is up to each State adopting the 2002 USA. There is a provision allowing the court to fashion appropriate relief, which is new.

3.    Section 35-1-603(c): This provision continues existing law.

Section 35-1-604.    (a)    If the Securities Commissioner determines that a person has engaged, is engaging, or is about to engage in an act, practice, or course of business constituting a violation of this chapter or a rule adopted or order issued under this chapter or that a person has materially aided, is materially aiding, or is about to materially aid an act, practice, or course of business constituting a violation of this chapter or a rule adopted or order issued under this chapter, the Securities Commissioner may:

(1)    issue an order directing the person to cease and desist from engaging in the act, practice, or course of business or to take other action necessary or appropriate to comply with this chapter;

(2)    issue an order denying, suspending, revoking, or conditioning the exemptions for a broker-dealer under Section 35-1-401(b)(1)(D) or (F) or an investment adviser under Section 35-1-403(b)(1)(C); or

(3)    issue an order under Section 35-1-204.

(b)    An order under subsection (a) is effective on the date of issuance. Upon issuance of the order, the Securities Commissioner shall promptly serve each person subject to the order with a copy of the order and a notice that the order has been entered. The order must include a statement of any civil penalty or costs of investigation the Securities Commissioner will seek, a statement of the reasons for the order, and notice that, within 15 days after receipt of a request in a record from the person, the matter will be scheduled for a hearing. If a person subject to the order does not request a hearing and none is ordered by the Securities Commissioner within 30 days after the date of service of the order, the order, which may include a civil penalty or costs of the investigation if a civil penalty or costs were sought becomes final as to that person by operation of law. If a hearing is requested or ordered, the Securities Commissioner, after notice of and opportunity for hearing to each person subject to the order, may modify or vacate the order or extend it until final determination.

(c)    If a hearing is requested or ordered pursuant to subsection (b), a hearing must be held. A final order may not be issued unless the Securities Commissioner makes findings of fact and conclusions of law in a record. The final order may make final, vacate, or modify the order issued under subsection (a).

(d)    In a final order under subsection (c), the Securities Commissioner may impose a civil penalty in an amount not to exceed $10,000 for each violation.

(e)    In a final order, the Securities Commissioner may charge the actual cost of an investigation or proceeding for a violation of this chapter or a rule adopted or order issued under this chapter.

(f)    If a petition for judicial review of a final order is not filed in accordance with Section 35-1-609, the Securities Commissioner may file a certified copy of the final order with the clerk of a court of competent jurisdiction. The order so filed has the same effect as a judgment of the court and may be recorded, enforced, or satisfied in the same manner as a judgment of the court.

(g)    If a person does not comply with an order under this section, the Securities Commissioner may petition a court of competent jurisdiction to enforce the order. The court may not require the Securities Commissioner to post a bond in an action or proceeding under this section. If the court finds, after service and opportunity for hearing, that the person was not in compliance with the order, the court may adjudge the person in civil contempt of the order. The court may impose a further civil penalty against the person for contempt in an amount not less than $500 but not greater than $5,000 for each violation and may grant any other relief the court determines is just and proper in the circumstances.

Official Comments

Prior Provisions: RUSA Sections 602, 712.

1.    Section 604, unlike Section 603, may be initiated by the administrator without prior judicial process or a prior hearing. The section, among other matters, empowers the administrator to act summarily in appropriate circumstances.

2.    Sections 603 and 604 are intended to be available to the administrator against persons not subject to stop orders under Section 306 or proceedings against registered broker-dealers, agents, investment advisers, or investment adviser representatives under Section 412. All persons or securities not subject to Section 306 or 412 will be subject to Sections 603 and 604. A person must be covered by either (1) Sections 306 or 412 or (2) Sections 603 or 604.

3.    Service of an order or notice under this Section is not effective unless made in accordance with Section 611.

South Carolina Reporter's Comments

1.    Section 35-1-604(a): Like Section 35-1-603, this provision is intended for use by the Attorney General against persons not subject to earlier provisions, although it likewise is available as an alternative to those procedures.

2.    Section 35-1-604(b): This provision is intended to provide due process protections for persons against whom an order under subsection (a) above is issued.

3.    Section 35-1-604(c): This provision provides for the requirement of a hearing and final order. The South Carolina Administrative Procedure Act does not apply to hearings and final orders under this chapter.

4.    Section 35-1-604(d): The amount of any civil penalty is optional with each enacting State in the uniform text.

5.    Section 35-1-604(e): This provision allows the taxing of costs.

6.    Section 35-1-604(f): This provision allows the Attorney General to enroll as a judgment any unappealled final order.

7.    Section 35-1-604(g): This provision gives a court the authority to enforce a final order, including the imposition of additional civil penalties in an amount optional with each enacting State.

Section 35-1-605.    (a)    The Securities Commissioner may:

(1)    issue forms and orders and, after notice and comment, may adopt and amend rules necessary or appropriate to carry out this chapter and may repeal rules, including rules and forms governing registration statements, applications, notice filings, reports, and other records;

(2)    by rule, define terms, whether or not used in this chapter, but those definitions may not be inconsistent with this chapter;

(3)    by rule, classify securities, persons, and transactions and adopt different requirements for different classes; and

(4)    establish fees for filings under Section 35-1-504, filings required or permitted by rule or order adopted pursuant to this section, and other miscellaneous filings for which no fees are otherwise specified by law.

(b)    Under this chapter, a rule or form may not be adopted or amended, or an order issued or amended, unless the Securities Commissioner finds that the rule, form, order, or amendment is necessary or appropriate in the public interest or for the protection of investors and is consistent with the purposes intended by this chapter. In adopting, amending, and repealing rules and forms, Section 35-1-608 applies in order to achieve uniformity among the States and coordination with federal laws in the form and content of registration statements, applications, reports, and other records, including the adoption of uniform rules, forms, and procedures.

(c)    Subject to Section 15(h) of the Securities Exchange Act and Section 222 of the Investment Advisers Act of 1940, the Securities Commissioner may require that a financial statement filed under this chapter be prepared in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles in the United States and comply with other requirements specified by rule adopted or order issued under this chapter. A rule adopted or order issued under this chapter may establish:

(1)    subject to Section 15(h) of the Securities Exchange Act and Section 222 of the Investment Advisors Act of 1940, the form and content of financial statements required under this chapter;

(2)    whether unconsolidated financial statements must be filed; and

(3)    whether required financial statements must be audited by an independent certified public accountant.

(d)    The Securities Commissioner may provide interpretative opinions or issue determinations that the Securities Commissioner will not institute a proceeding or an action under this chapter against a specified person for engaging in a specified act, practice, or course of business if the determination is consistent with this chapter. A rule adopted or order issued under this chapter may establish a reasonable charge for interpretative opinions or determinations that the Securities Commissioner will not institute an action or a proceeding under this chapter.

(e)    A penalty under this chapter may not be imposed for, and liability does not arise from conduct that is engaged in or omitted in good faith believing it conforms to a rule, form, or order of the Securities Commissioner under this chapter. The burden of proving good faith rests on the person claiming reliance.

(f)    A hearing in an administrative proceeding under this chapter must be conducted in public unless the Securities Commissioner for good cause consistent with this chapter determines that the hearing will not be so conducted.

Official Comments

Prior Provisions: 1956 Act Section 412; RUSA Sections 705, 707.

1.    It is anticipated that the administrator will propose amendments or make rules under Section 605(a) to remain coordinate with relevant federal law, as well as appropriate rules of the National Association of Securities Dealers, and to achieve uniformity among the States.

2.    Uniform forms such as Form B-D, U-4, U-5, and NF are today common in the securities industry and are authorized by Section 605(b).

3.    Section 605(c) refers to generally accepted accounting principles in the United States which currently are promulgated by the Financial Accounting Standards Board and the Securities and Exchange Commission.

4.    It is anticipated that the states will employ websites, e-mail or other electronic means to provide notice of proposed rulemaking or adoption of new rules, rule amendments, forms or form amendments, statements of policy or interpretations adopted by the administrator, and issuance of orders to registrants and others who have provided a current e-mail or similar address and expressed an interest in receiving such notice.

5.    Section 605(e) does not apply to staff no action or interpretative opinions, but does apply to rules, forms, orders, statements of policy or interpretations adopted by the administrator.

South Carolina Reporter's Comments

1.    Section 35-1-605: This section generally continues existing law.

Section 35-1-606.    (a)    The Securities Commissioner shall maintain, or designate a person to maintain, a register of applications for registration of securities; registration statements; notice filings; applications for registration of broker-dealers, agents, investment advisers, and investment adviser representatives; notice filings by federal covered investment advisers that are or have been effective under this chapter or the predecessor chapter; notices of claims of exemption from registration or notice filing requirements contained in a record; orders issued under this chapter or the predecessor chapter; and interpretative opinions or no action determinations issued under this chapter.

(b)    The Securities Commissioner shall make all rules, forms, interpretative opinions, and orders available to the public.

(c)    The Securities Commissioner shall furnish a copy of a record that is a public record or a certification that the public record does not exist to a person that so requests. A rule adopted or order issued under this chapter may establish a reasonable charge for furnishing the record or certification. A copy of the record certified or a certificate by the Securities Commissioner of a record's nonexistence is prima facie evidence of a record or its nonexistence.

Official Comments

Prior Provisions: 1956 Act Section 413; RUSA Section 709.

1.    "Record" is defined in Section 102(25).

2.    Compliance with a state records law will typically satisfy the requirements of Section 606(a).

South Carolina Reporter's Comments

1.    Section 35-1-606(a): This provision requires the maintenance of a register of various filings and registrations, including notice filings, required under the 2002 USA, and of the Attorney General's orders, interpretative opinions, and no action determinations issued under it.

2.    Section 35-1-606(b): This provision states the Securities Commissioner's duty to make certain documents available to the public, which parallels the duty imposed by S.C. Code Ann. Section 1-23-140.

3.    Section 35-1-606(c): This provision adds to existing law the duty to certify the nonexistence of a record.

Section 35-1-607.    (a)    Except as otherwise provided in subsection (b), records obtained by the Securities Commissioner or filed under this chapter, including a record contained in or filed with a registration statement, application, notice filing, or report, are public records and are available for public examination.

(b)    The following records are not public records and are not available for public examination under subsection (a):

(1)    a record obtained by the Securities Commissioner in connection with an audit or inspection under Section 35-1-411(d) or an investigation under Section 35-1-602;

(2)    a part of a record filed in connection with a registration statement under Sections 35-1-301 and 35-1-303 through 35-1-305 or a record under Section 35-1-411(d) that contains trade secrets or confidential information if the person filing the registration statement or report has asserted a claim of confidentiality or privilege that is authorized by law;

(3)    a record that is not required to be provided to the Securities Commissioner or filed under this chapter and is provided to the Securities Commissioner only on the condition that the record will not be subject to public examination or disclosure;

(4)    a nonpublic record received from a person specified in Section 35-1-608(a);

(5)    any social security number, residential address unless used as a business address, and residential telephone number unless used as a business telephone number, contained in a record that is filed; and

(6)    a record obtained by the Securities Commissioner through a designee of the Securities Commissioner that a rule or order under this chapter determines has been:

(A)    expunged from the Securities Commissioner's records by the designee; or

(B)    determined to be nonpublic or nondisclosable by that designee if the Securities Commissioner finds the determination to be in the public interest and for the protection of investors.

(c)    If disclosure is for the purpose of a civil, administrative, or criminal investigation, action, or proceeding or to a person specified in Section 35-1-608(a), the Securities Commissioner may disclose a record obtained in connection with an audit or inspection under Section 35-1-411(d) or a record obtained in connection with an investigation under Section 35-1-602.

Official Comments

Prior Provisions: RUSA Section 703; SEC Rule Section 200.80(b)(4); Securities Exchange Act of 1934 Sections 24(d) and (e).

1.    Section 607(a) reflects the extensive development of freedom of information and open records laws since the 1956 Act was adopted.

2.    Section 607(b) may insulate from public disclosure records or other information that may be available under a state freedom of information or open records act. Unless the state freedom of information or open records act implements a constitutional provision, this chapter as the later and more specific enactment should control as a matter of statutory construction. A state may amend its freedom of information act, open records act or this section to eliminate any inconsistencies.

3.    Records and other information obtained by an administrator in connection with an audit or inspection under subsection 411(d) or an investigation under Section 602 may be made public in the enforcement action, even if records and other information would otherwise be subject to subsection 607(b)(1).

4.    An administrator may orally disclose information under Section 607(c) to a person specified in Section 608(a) for the purposes specified in Section 607(c).

South Carolina Reporter's Comments

Section 35-1-607: This section continues the existing presumption that records are public. The exceptions contained in subsection (b) generally follow the standards of the Freedom of Information Act. Subsection (c) allows disclosure of nonpublic records for limited purposes.

Section 35-1-608.    (a)    The Securities Commissioner shall, in its discretion, cooperate, coordinate, consult, and, subject to Section 35-1-607, share records and information with the securities regulator of another State, Canada, a Canadian province or territory, a foreign jurisdiction, the Securities and Exchange Commission, the United States Department of Justice, the Commodity Futures Trading Commission, the Federal Trade Commission, the Securities Investor Protection Corporation, a self-regulatory organization, a national or international organization of securities regulators, a federal or state banking and insurance regulator, and a governmental law enforcement agency to effectuate greater uniformity in securities matters among the federal government, self-regulatory organizations, States, and foreign governments.

(b)    In cooperating, coordinating, consulting, and sharing records and information under this section and in acting by rule, order, or waiver under this chapter, the Securities Commissioner shall, in its discretion, take into consideration in carrying out the public interest the following general policies:

(1)    maximizing effectiveness of regulation for the protection of investors;

(2)    maximizing uniformity in federal and state regulatory standards; and

(3)    minimizing burdens on the business of capital formation, without adversely affecting essentials of investor protection.

(c)    The cooperation, coordination, consultation, and sharing of records and information authorized by this section includes:

(1)    establishing or employing one or more designees as a central depository for registration and notice filings under this chapter and for records required or allowed to be maintained under this chapter;

(2)    developing and maintaining uniform forms;

(3)    conducting a joint examination or investigation;

(4)    holding a joint administrative hearing;

(5)    instituting and prosecuting a joint civil or administrative proceeding;

(6)    sharing and exchanging personnel;

(7)    coordinating registrations under Sections 35-1-301 and 35-1-401 through 35-1-404 and exemptions under Section 35-1-203;

(8)    sharing and exchanging records, subject to Section 35-1-607;

(9)    formulating rules, statements of policy, guidelines, forms, and interpretative opinions and releases;

(10)    formulating common systems and procedures;

(11)    notifying the public of proposed rules, forms, statements of policy, and guidelines;

(12)    attending conferences and other meetings among securities regulators, which may include representatives of governmental and private sector organizations involved in capital formation, deemed necessary or appropriate to promote or achieve uniformity; and

(13)    developing and maintaining a uniform exemption from registration for small issuers, and taking other steps to reduce the burden of raising investment capital by small businesses.

Official Comments

Prior Provisions: 1956 Act Section 415; RUSA Sections 704 and 803; 19(c) of the Securities Act of 1933.

1.    Uniformity of regulation among the states and coordination with the Securities and Exchange Commission are principal objectives of this chapter. Section 608 is intended to encourage such cooperation to the maximum extent appropriate. Operative phrases such as "shall, in its discretion" in Sections 608(a) and (b) are intended to be precisely coordinate with the directive that Congress gave to the Securities and Exchange Commission in Section 19(c) of the Securities Act of 1933.

2.    The goals of uniformity among the states and coordination with related federal regulation, including self regulatory organizations, may be enhanced by greater use of information technology systems such as the Web-CRD, the Investment Adviser Registration Depository (IARD), or the Securities and Exchange Commission Electronic Data Gathering, Analysis and Retrieval System (EDGAR). These types of techniques are consistent with a potential system of "one stop filing" of all federal and state forms that is encouraged by this chapter.

3.    This chapter is intended, to the extent practicable, to be revenue neutral in its impact on existing state laws.

4.    Section 608(c) lists some joint or coordinated efforts which might be undertaken. Other appropriate cooperative activities are also encouraged.

5.    Court decisions interpreting the securities laws have construed these acts to achieve "broad protection to investors," a remedial approach that "embodies a flexible rather than a static principle, one that is capable of adaption to meet the countless and variable schemes devised by those who seek to use the money of others on the promise of profits." SEC v. W.J. Howey Co, 328 U.S. 293, 299, 301 (1946).

South Carolina Reporter's Comments

1.    Section 35-1-608(a): This provision is new and states as the public policy of this State the goals of uniformity among the states and coordination with federal regulation of securities.

2.    Section 35-1-608(b): This provision is new and states the policies to be considered by the Securities Commissioner in taking action under this chapter.

3.    Section 35-1-608(c): This provision is new.

Section 35-1-609.    A person aggrieved by a final order of the Securities Commissioner may obtain a review of the order in the Richland County Court of Common Pleas by filing in the court, within thirty days after entry of the order, a written petition praying that the order may be modified or set aside in whole or in part. The aggrieved person, upon filing a petition, may move before the court in which the petition is filed to stay the effectiveness of the Securities Commissioner's final order until such time as the court has reviewed the order. If the court orders a stay, the aggrieved person must post any bond set by the court in which a petition is filed. A copy of the petition must be served upon the Securities Commissioner, and the Securities Commissioner shall certify and file in court a copy of the filing and evidence upon which the order was entered. When these have been filed, the court has exclusive jurisdiction to affirm, modify, enforce or set aside the order, in whole or in part. The findings of the Securities Commissioner as to the facts, if supported by competent, material, and substantial evidence, are conclusive.

Official Comments

Prior Provisions: 1956 Act Section 411; RUSA Section 711(b).

1.    The 1956 Act Section 411 specified procedures for judicial review of orders, in part modeled on Section 12 of the Model Administrative Procedure Act, 54 Handbook of National Conference of Commissioners on Uniform State Laws 334 (1944) and partly on Section 25 of the Securities Exchange Act.

2.    A rule adopted under this chapter may be subject to judicial review in accordance with the state administrative procedure act.

3.    In those states in which judicial review of rules is permitted, a state may choose to add Section 609(b). In those states in which judicial review of rules is not permitted, Section 609(b) should be deleted.

South Carolina Reporter's Comments

Section 35-1-609: This provision sets forth the procedure for judicial review of final orders of the Securities Commissioner. It continues existing law by excluding such review from the application of the Administrative Procedures Act and therefore varies from the uniform text.

Section 35-1-610.    (a)    Sections 35-1-301, 35-1-302, 35-1-401(a), 35-1-402(a), 35-1-403(a), 35-1-404(a), 35-1-501, 35-1-506, 35-1-509, and 35-1-510 do not apply to a person that sells or offers to sell a security unless the offer to sell or the sale is made in this State or the offer to purchase or the purchase is made and accepted in this State.

(b)    Sections 35-1-401(a), 35-1-402(a), 35-1-403(a), 35-1-404(a), 35-1-501, 35-1-506, 35-1-509, and 35-1-510 do not apply to a person that purchases or offers to purchase a security unless the offer to purchase or the purchase is made in this State or the offer to sell or the sale is made and accepted in this State.

(c)    For the purpose of this section, an offer to sell or to purchase a security is made in this State, whether or not either party is then present in this State, if the offer:

(1)    originates from within this State; or

(2)    is directed by the offeror to a place in this State and received at the place to which it is directed.

(d)    For the purpose of this section, an offer to purchase or to sell is accepted in this State, whether or not either party is then present in this State, if the acceptance:

(1)    is communicated to the offeror in this State and the offeree reasonably believes the offeror to be present in this State and the acceptance is received at the place in this State to which it is directed; and

(2)    has not previously been communicated to the offeror, orally or in a record, outside this State.

(e)    An offer to sell or to purchase is not made in this State when a publisher circulates or there is circulated on the publisher's behalf in this State a bona fide newspaper or other publication of general, regular, and paid circulation that is not published in this State, or that is published in this State but has had more than two thirds of its circulation outside this State during the previous twelve months or when a radio or television program or other electronic communication originating outside this State is received in this State. A radio or television program, or other electronic communication is considered as having originated in this State if either the broadcast studio or the originating source of transmission is located in this State, unless:

(1)    the program or communication is syndicated and distributed from outside this State for redistribution to the general public in this State;

(2)    the program or communication is supplied by a radio, television, or other electronic network with the electronic signal originating from outside this State for redistribution to the general public in this State;

(3)    the program or communication is an electronic communication that originates outside this State and is captured for redistribution to the general public in this State by a community antenna or cable, radio, cable television, or other electronic system; or

(4)    the program or communication consists of an electronic communication that originates in this State, but which is not intended for distribution to the general public in this State.

(f)    Sections 35-1-403(a), 35-1-404(a), 35-1-405(a), 35-1-502, 35-1-505, and 35-1-506 apply to a person if the person engages in an act, practice, or course of business instrumental in effecting prohibited or actionable conduct in this State, whether or not either party is then present in this State.

Official Comments

Source of Law: 1956 Act Section 414; RUSA Section 801.

1.    Section 610 defines the application of the chapter to interstate or international transactions when only some of the elements of a violation occur in this State. This section applies to all types of proceedings specified by the chapter - administrative, civil, and criminal. The law is now settled that a person may violate the law of a particular state without ever being within the state or performing each act necessary to violate the law within that state.

2.    Section 610 generally follows Section 414 of the 1956 Act, but has been modernized to reflect the development of the Internet and other electronic communications after 1956.

3.    Section 610 can be illustrated in the context of a civil action under Section 509(b) by a purchaser in State A against a seller in State B:

Section 610(a) would apply when an "offer to sell is made in this State."

Section 610(c) provides that an offer which originates in State B and is directed to State A is made in both states. The securities act of State A would apply under Section 610(c)(2). The act of State B would apply also, under Section 610(c)(1). The intent is to prevent a seller in State B from using that state as a base of operations for defrauding person in other states.

Section 610(e) addresses offers made through publications, radio, television, or electronic communications. The subsection provides a series of safe harbors for advertisements in newspapers, magazines, radio, television, or electronic media that either originate outside State A or that originate in State A but are directed outside the state to the general public. With respect to bona fide newspapers or other publications of general, regular, and paid circulation, the safe harbor requires that more than two thirds of its circulation be outside State A. With respect to radio, television, or other electronic communications, safe harbors are specified in Sections 610(e)(1) through (4).

Section 610(d), however, provides that a person in State A who makes an offer to purchase as a result of communication described in Section 610(e) may cause the chapter to be applicable if the offeror accepts the offer "in this State." Section 610(d) defines when an offer is accepted "in this State."

If a selling broker-dealer in State B solely sends a confirmation into State A, or the purchaser in State A sends a check from within State A, the chapter will not apply unless, under Section 610(d), the confirmation or delivery constitutes the seller's acceptance of the purchaser's offer to buy in State A.

The applicability of the chapter to purchaser is addressed by Section 610(b) which is the converse of Section 610(a). Under Section 509(c) there can be liability of purchasers to sellers.

Section 610(f) is a new provision that specifies jurisdictions in cases involving investment advice and misrepresentations.

4.    Under subsection 202(20) certain out-of-state offers or sales are exempt from securities registration.

5.    The phrase "other electronic means" is coextensive with computer or other information technology permitted by subsections 102(8), 102(25).

6.    Under Section 610 the administrator may adopt interpretative rules or orders to specify when particular uses of new electronic communications, including the Internet, involve an offer to sell or to purchase a security, acceptance of an order to purchase or sell a security, or an act or practice involving prohibited conduct, within a State, whether or not a purchaser, seller, or other party is then present in the State. The NASAA Interpretive Order Concerning Broker-Dealers, Agents, and Investment Adviser Representatives Using the Internet for General Dissemination of Information for Products and Services (Apr. 23, 1997) is an illustration of an interpretative order that would be in compliance with the administrator's authority under Section 610. Under this Order, broker-dealers, agents, investment advisers, and investment adviser representatives who distribute information on available products and services through communications on the Internet generally to anyone having access to the Internet such as postings on a bulletin board or home page shall not be deemed to be transacting business in a State if specified conditions are satisfied including a legend clearly stating that the broker-dealer, agent, investment adviser, or investment adviser representative may transact business in that State only if first registered, excluded or exempted from applicable registration requirements.

South Carolina Reporter's Comments

1.    Section 35-1-610(a): This provision continues existing law.

2.    Section 35-1-610(b): This provision continues existing law.

3.    Section 35-1-610(c): This provision continues existing law.

4.    Section 35-1-610(d): This provision continues existing law.

5.    Section 35-1-610(e): This provision is intended to extend to computer and other technology, in addition to traditional media. It clarifies the safe harbors available for media communications.

6.    Section 35-1-610(f): This provision continues existing law.

Section 35-1-611.    (a)    A consent to service of process complying with this section required by this chapter must be signed and filed in the form required by a rule or order under this chapter. A consent appointing the Securities Commissioner the person's agent for service of process in a noncriminal action or proceeding against the person, or the person's successor or personal representative under this chapter or a rule adopted or order issued under this chapter after the consent is filed, has the same force and validity as if the service were made personally on the person filing the consent. A person that has filed a consent complying with this subsection in connection with a previous application for registration or notice filing need not file an additional consent.

(b)    If a person, including a nonresident of this State, engages in an act, practice, or course of business prohibited or made actionable by this chapter or a rule adopted or order issued under this chapter and the person has not filed a consent to service of process under subsection (a), the act, practice, or course of business constitutes the appointment of the Securities Commissioner as the person's agent for service of process in a noncriminal action or proceeding against the person or the person's successor or personal representative.

(c)    Service under subsection (a) or (b) may be made by providing a copy of the process to the office of the Securities Commissioner, but it is not effective unless:

(1)    the plaintiff, which may be the Securities Commissioner, promptly sends notice of the service and a copy of the process, return receipt requested, to the defendant or respondent at the address set forth in the consent to service of process or, if a consent to service of process has not been filed, at the last known address, or takes other reasonable steps to give notice; and

(2)    the plaintiff files an affidavit of compliance with this subsection in the action or proceeding on or before the return day of the process, if any, or within the time that the court, or the Securities Commissioner in a proceeding before the Securities Commissioner, allows.

(d)    Service pursuant to subsection (c) may be used in a proceeding before the Securities Commissioner or by the Securities Commissioner in a civil action in which the Securities Commissioner is the moving party.

(e)    If process is served under subsection (c), the court, or the Securities Commissioner in a proceeding before the Securities Commissioner, shall order continuances as are necessary or appropriate to afford the defendant or respondent reasonable opportunity to defend.

Official Comments

Prior Provisions: 1956 Act Sections 414(g) and (h); RUSA Section 708.

1.    Section 611 follows the 1956 Act and RUSA in providing for a signed consent to service of process in Section 611(a); a substituted service of process in Section 611(b); and process and opportunity to defend in Sections 611(c) through (e).

2.    An issuer is not required to file a consent to service of process unless it proposes to offer a security in this State through someone acting on an agency basis. Since the civil liability provisions of Section 509(b) apply only in a suit by a purchaser against a seller, the issuer in a firm commitment underwriting is civilly liable only to the underwriter, who, in turn, may be liable to the dealer, who, in turn, may be liable to the purchaser. In contrast, in a best efforts underwriting, when the security is sold on an agency basis and title passes directly to the purchaser, the issuer can be liable to the purchaser.

3.    Section 611(b) generally follows Section 414(h) of the 1956 Act and Section 708(c) of RUSA. The intent is to provide for substituted service of process when a seller in one state directs an offer into a second state either in violation of the laws of the second state or fraudulently. Under Section 611(b) the purchaser may sue the seller in the purchaser's state and then bring an action on the judgment in the seller's state. The constitutionality of this type of statute has long been sustained.

4.    This section was originally based on the type of nonresident motorist statute whose constitutionality was sustained in Hess v. Pawlowski, 274 U.S. 352 (1927) and subsequently in other contexts. See, e.g., International Shoe Co. v. State of Wash., 326 U.S. 310 (1945); Travelers Health Ass'n v. Commonwealth of Va., 339 U.S. 643 (1950).

South Carolina Reporter's Comments

Section 35-1-611: This section substantially continues existing law.

Section 35-1-612.    If any provision of this chapter or its application to any person or circumstances is held invalid, the invalidity does not affect other provisions or applications of this chapter that can be given effect without the invalid provision or application, and to this end the provisions of this chapter are severable.

Official Comments

Prior Provisions: 1956 Act Section 417; RUSA Section 805.

South Carolina Reporter's Comments

Section 35-1-612: This provision protects the effectiveness of this chapter in the event any provision is held invalid.

Article 7

Transition

Section 35-1-701.    (a)    The predecessor chapter exclusively governs all actions or proceedings that are pending on the effective date of this chapter or may be instituted on the basis of conduct occurring before the effective date of this chapter, but a civil action may not be maintained to enforce any liability under the predecessor chapter unless instituted within any period of limitation that applied when the cause of action accrued or within five years after the effective date of this chapter, whichever is earlier.

(b)    All effective registrations under the predecessor chapter, all administrative orders relating to the registrations, rules, statements of policy, interpretative opinions, declaratory rulings, no action determinations, and conditions imposed on the registrations under the predecessor chapter remain in effect while they would have remained in effect if this chapter had not been enacted. They are considered to have been filed, issued, or imposed under this chapter, but are exclusively governed by the predecessor chapter.

(c)    The predecessor chapter exclusively applies to an offer or sale made within one year after the effective date of this chapter pursuant to an offering made in good faith before the effective date of this chapter on the basis of an exemption available under the predecessor chapter.

Official Comments

Prior Provisions: 1956 Act Section 418; RUSA Section 807.     Prior law governs all suits, actions, prosecutions, or proceedings which are pending or may be initiated on the basis of facts or circumstances occurring before the effective date of a State blue sky statute. See Hilton v. Mumaw, 522 F.2d 588, 600 (9th Cir. 1975).

South Carolina Reporter's Comments

1.    Section 35-1-701(a): This provision provides for the continued application of existing law to matters pending as of the effective date of this chapter and to actions which occurred prior to the effective date.

2.    Section 35-1-701(b): This provision provides for the continued application of registrations, orders, rulings, etc. as though they were issued under this chapter, but provides that they be governed exclusively by law existing on the date of their issue, i.e., the predecessor Chapter 1 of Title 35.

3.    Section 35-1-701(c): This provision allows offers or sales of offerings made in good faith prior to the effective date of this chapter to be governed exclusively by existing law, i.e., the Uniform Securities Act, Chapter 1 of Title 35 as it existed prior to the enactment of this Act, the South Carolina Uniform Securities Act of 2005, for a one year period after the effective date. The expanded private and administrative remedies of this chapter would not, therefore, apply to any such offers or sales.

Section 35-1-702.    (a)    Every applicant applying for registration as a broker-dealer, broker-dealer agent, investment adviser, or investment adviser representative and every person filing a securities registration statement or a notice filing for a federal covered security or a federal covered investment adviser shall pay the below specified fees and meet other requirements established by statute or otherwise set pursuant to this chapter. When an application is denied or withdrawn, the filing fee must not be refunded. The following fees are in effect for the filings designated until the Securities Commissioner promulgates a rule or order establishing different fees:

(1)    For all initial and renewal notice filings of federal covered securities as defined in Section 18(b)(2) of the Securities Act of 1933: Five hundred forty-six dollars

(2)    For all documents filed with respect to a federal covered security under Section 18(b)(3) or (4): Twenty-five dollars

(3)    For all initial and subsequent notice filings of federal covered securities under Section 18(b)(4)(D) of the Securities Act of 1933 and all filings pursuant to Regulation D of the Securities Act of 1933: Three hundred dollars

(4)    For all registration statements pursuant to this chapter: Five hundred dollars

(5)    For all post-effective amendments to increase the number of securities to be offered or sold pursuant to a current registration statement: Five hundred dollars

(6)    Broker-Dealer (initial filing fee): Three hundred ten dollars

(7)    Broker-Dealer (renewal filing fee): Three hundred ten dollars

(8)    Broker-Dealer Agent (initial filing fee): One hundred ten dollars

(9)    Broker-Dealer Agent (renewal or change of registration filing fee): One hundred dollars

(10)    Investment Advisers (initial filing fee): Two hundred ten dollars

(11)    Investment Advisers (renewal filing fee): Two hundred ten dollars

(12)    Investment Adviser Representatives (initial filing fee): Fifty-five dollars

(13)    Investment Adviser Representatives (renewal or change of registration filing fee): Fifty-five dollars

(14)    Federal Covered Investment Advisers (initial fee): Two hundred ten dollars

(15)    Federal Covered Investment Advisers (renewal filing fee): Two hundred ten dollars.

(b)    The Attorney General may retain the first one million five hundred thousand dollars from fee revenues collected pursuant to this chapter to be used for the operations of the Securities Division. The Attorney General may transfer to the South Carolina Law Enforcement Division two hundred thousand dollars after retaining the first one million five hundred thousand dollars collected pursuant to this chapter to be retained, expended, and carried forward for the provision of investigators for the State Grand Jury. The funds transferred to the State Law Enforcement Division must be used only for purposes of the State Grand Jury, and may not be transferred to another program or used for another purpose.

(c)    The Attorney General may retain the first seven hundred fifty thousand dollars received by the Division of Securities in a fiscal year in settlement of litigation enforcement action and reimbursements of expenses arising from violations under this chapter to offset investigative, prosecutorial, and administrative costs of enforcing this chapter.

South Carolina Reporter's Comments

Section 35-1-702 is a nonuniform provision setting fees and allowing the Attorney General to retain a portion of fees and of recoveries in civil or administrative enforcement actions. It consolidates several statutes under prior law. It increases the amount which may be retained by the Attorney General from civil or administrative enforcement actions, but generally continues prior law.

Section 35-1-703.    This act takes effect on January 1, 2006.

Housing and redevelopment notes and bonds

SECTION    2.    Section 31-13-200(b)(ii)(b) of the 1976 Code is amended to read:

"(b)    If the notes or bonds are sold or placed either as 'mortgage bonds sold as a unit', in 'transactions with banks, institutional buyers, or other nonregistered persons' as provided in Section 35-1-202(11)(A), the documents pursuant to which the notes or bonds are issued must permit the authority to avoid a default by it by completing an assignment of, or foregoing its rights with respect to, any collateral or security pledged to secure the notes or bonds."

Definitions

SECTION    3.    Section 35-6-10(B)(8) of the 1976 Code, as added by Act 102 of 1997, is amended to read:

"(8)    'Security' means and is defined as provided in Section 35-1-102(28) and as a security account."

Not subject to Consumer Protection Code

SECTION    4.    Section 37-1-202(11) of the 1976 Code is amended to read:

"(11)    Transactions in securities or commodities accounts with broker-dealers registered under Article 4 of Chapter 1, Title 35 or with the Securities and Exchange Commission."

Captive insurance company regulation

SECTION    5.    Section 38-90-440(E)(5)(f) of the 1976 Code, as added by Act 291 of 2004, is amended to read:

"(f)    an affidavit from the applicant that the securities proposed to be issued are valid legal obligations that are either properly registered with the Securities Commissioner or constitute an exempt security or form part of an exempt transaction pursuant to Section 35-1-201 or Section 35-1-202."

Palmetto Seed Capital Fund securities

SECTION    6.    Section 41-44-60(G) of the 1976 Code is amended to read:

"(G)    All securities issued by either the Corporation or the Fund before dissolution pursuant to Section 6 of Act 187 of 2004 are considered exempt securities with regard to Section 35-1-201 of the Uniform Securities Act."

Time effective

SECTION    7.    Unless otherwise provided herein, this act takes effect January 1, 2006.

Ratified the 26th day of May, 2005.

Approved the 1st day of June, 2005.

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